Recent advances

Recent advances in air-coupled ultrasonic spectroscopy have enabled ultrasonic waves to be applied to the on-line and real-time assessment of the water content of different materials. In this study, this technique

has been applied as a non-destructive, non-invasive, non-contact, and repeatable method for the determination of water status in Populus3euramericana and Prunus laurocerasus leaves. Frequency spectra of the transmittance of ultrasounds through plant leaves reveal the presence of at least one resonance. At this resonant frequency, transmittance is at its maximum. This work demonstrates that changes in leaf relative water content (RWC) and water potential (W) for both species can be accurately monitored by the corresponding changes in resonant frequency. The differential response found between both species may be due to the contrasting leaf structural features and the differences found in the parameters derived from the P -V curves. The turgor loss point has been precisely defined by this new technique, as it is derived from the lack of significant differences between the relative water content at the turgor loss point (RWCTLP) obtained

from P -V curves and ultrasonic measurements. buy AZD0530 The measurement of the turgor gradient between two different points of a naturally transpiring leaf is easily carried out with the method introduced here. Therefore, such a procedure can be an accurate tool for the study of all processes where changes in leaf water status are involved.”
“In this research, polypropylene/wood-flour composites (WPCs) were blended with different contents see more of wood and/or maleated polypropylene (MAPP) and clay. We found that the addition of MAPP or clay in the formulation greatly improved the dispersion of the wood fibers in the composite; this suggested that MAPP or clay may have played the role of an adhesion promoter in the WPCs. The results obtained with clay indicate that it

also acted as a flame retardant. The thermal tests carried out with the produced samples showed an increased crystallization temperature (T(c)), crystallinity, and melting temperature (T(m)) with wood loading. The increase of the two former parameters was explained by the incorporation of wood flour, which played the role of nucleating agent and induced the crystallization of the matrix polymer. On the other hand, the T(m) increase was ascribed to the insulating properties of wood, which hindered the movement of heat conduction. The effects of UV irradiation on T(m) and T(c) were also examined. T(c) increased with UV exposure time; this implied that UV degradation generated short chains with low molecular weight that could move easily in the bulk of the sample and, thus, catalyze early crystallization. The flexural strength and modulus increased with increasing wood-flour content.


area of repigmentation was significantly greater in p


area of repigmentation was significantly greater in patients with segmental vitiligo (n = 9) than in those with generalized vitiligo (n = 4). Repigmentation covered a broader area and occurred more quickly in patients under 15 years of age than in those over 20 years of age (n = 9). Disease duration did not affect the repigmentation rate. The results of the present study suggest that 1-mm minigrafts are effective for treating patients with vitiligo. Better results occurred in patients under 15 years of age, patients with facial grafts, and patients with segmental and limited subtypes.”
“Background: Cell-cell communication occurs via a variety of mechanisms, including long distances (hormonal), short distances (paracrine and synaptic) or direct coupling via YM155 gap junctions, antigen presentation, or ligand-receptor interactions. We evaluated the possibility of neuro-hormonal independent,

non-diffusible, physically disconnected pathways for cell-cell communication using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Methods: We assessed intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]) in primary culture DRG neurons that express ATP-sensitive P2X3, capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 receptors modulated by estradiol. Physically disconnected (dish-in-dish system; inner chamber enclosed) mouse DRG were cultured for 12 hours near: a) media alone (control 1), b) mouse DRG (control 2), c) human neuroblastoma SHSY-5Y cells (cancer intervention), or d) mouse DRG treated with KCl (apoptosis intervention). Results: Chemosensitive receptors [Ca2+](i) signaling

did not differ between control 1 and 2. ATP (10 mu M) check details and capsaicin (100nM) increased [Ca2+](i) transients to 425.86 +/- 49.5 nM, and 399.21 +/- 44.5 nM, respectively. 17 beta-estradiol (100 nM) exposure reduced ATP (171.17 +/- 48.9 nM) and capsaicin (175.01+/-34.8 nM) [Ca2+](i) transients. The presence of cancer cells PXD101 reduced ATP- and capsaicin-induced [Ca2+](i) by >50% (p<0.05) and abolished the 17 beta-estradiol effect. By contrast, apoptotic DRG cells increased initial ATP-induced [Ca2+](i), flux four fold and abolished subsequent [Ca2+](i), responses to ATP stimulation (p<0.001). Capsaicin (100nM) induced [Ca2+](i) responses were totally abolished. Conclusion: The local presence of apoptotic DRG or human neuroblastoma cells induced differing abnormal ATP and capsaicin-mediated [Ca2+](i) fluxes in normal DRG. These findings support physically disconnected, non-diffusible cell-to-cell signaling. Further studies are needed to delineate the mechanism(s) of and model(s) of communication.”
“Objective: Several studies have shown that patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) have lower bone mineral density (BMD) and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis compared to an age-matched population. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are typically associated with increased BMD.

Conclusions: Differences exist in ghrelin receptor expression in

Conclusions: Differences exist in ghrelin receptor expression in lymphocytes isolated from stable CF patients with different BMIs. These changes may be due to a disordered pathological response to weight loss. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Objective: To evaluate diagnostic accuracy and efficiency

of ultrasound markers of gestational diabetes (GDM) and propose an ultrasound based scoring system suitable for screening (UGDS). Methods: 110 women with singleton pregnancies and established maternal and/or pregnancy related risk factors for GDM were scanned at/or after 24 weeks gestation followed by administration of a 3 hour 100-gram oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). A number of ultrasound markers were determined/measured, including fetal adipose subcutaneous Smad inhibitor tissue, asymmetrical macrosomy, cardiac circumference, cardiac width, and interventricular septum thickness, immature appearance of placenta, intensified breathing movements, polyhydramnios and placental thickness. Each ultrasound GDM marker was assigned one point to create the ultrasound gestational diabetes screening Tipifarnib solubility dmso score (UGDS). Results: All ultrasound

GDM markers were positively correlated to the disease P < 0.0001. The strongest independent predictor of GDM was an immature appearance of placenta (RR 40.1 95% CI 5.9-271.0, P < 0.0001). Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) showed an area under the curve of 95.7% confirming good ability of UGDS to discriminate between positive and negative oGTT. We propose a UGDS score of 4 providing sensitivity of 90.9%, and specificity 89.6%. Conclusions: This study suggests that UGDS is a good predictor of GDM.”
“The present study provides new insight into structural processes remodeling pulmonary capillaries in adult lung. The data highlight mechanisms

underlying the expansion and increased density of capillary segments on return to air breathing Epigenetic inhibitor screening library (FiO(2) 0.21) after injury in high oxygen (FiO(2) 0.75). As segments expand and increase in number, endothelial cells extend their processes to bridge the lumen and support the walls of developing interluminal structures (ILSs); endothelial-epithelial surfaces infold as a single unit (sheet) into the lumen, increasing the length of each surface and subdividing segments by loop formation and by the formation of ILSs; segments further increase in number as lumen subdivision proceeds by intussusceptive microvascular growth (IMG).”
“Purpose of reviewActive surveillance is now one of the recommended treatment options for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). However, about 10-30% of men on active surveillance will progress and require definitive therapy. In this review, we examine the role of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) in secondary prevention among men with low-risk PCa who opted to be managed by active surveillance.

5 and 24 2 %, respectively For other items, the values ranged fr

5 and 24.2 %, respectively. For other items, the values ranged from 0 to 14.2 %. Neither floor nor ceiling effects were found for the COMI summary score. Excellent correlations were found between the COMI pain scores and VAS scores (Rho = 0.89) and between

the COMI pain and the SF-36 bodily pain domain (Rho = 0.84). Other MLN8237 individual items and summary scores showed a very good correlation (Rho = 0.54-0.72) with the corresponding questionnaires except for “”symptom-specific well-being”" (0.31-0.45). One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ICC for the entire COMI score was 0.91 (95 % CI 0.85-0.94) and 0.81-0.86 for the two pain scores (back and leg). The “”minimum detectable change” (MDC 95 %) for the COMI summary score was 1.91 points. No significant difference in the mean values was found for the repeated scores of individual items or the summary score.

The Simplified Chinese version of COMI showed satisfactory reliability and good psychometric properties. This concise questionnaire is suitable for

widespread use in Mainland China.”
“Many researchers have shown that plant-derived polyphenolic compounds are helpful nutraceuticals in restraining various disorders such as neoplastic diseases. In this study two linear furanocoumarins, aviprin and aviprin-3 ”-O-D-glucopyranoside (A3G), were isolated from methanol extract of Prangos uloptera roots. The evaluation I-BET-762 order of free radical scavenging capacity of the compounds showed that aviprin is a more effective antioxidant than A3G with RC50 of find more 0.54 mg mL(-1). The biological and antiproliferative activities of the furanocoumarins were examined using human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line and LNCaP prostatic cell line. Cell membrane integrity

and cell viability were evaluated by measuring trypan blue exclusion assay and reduction of the tetrazolium blue compound, respectively. Treating the LNCaP cell line with various concentrations of the furanocoumarins showed that IC50 of aviprin and A3G were 0.4 and 6.6 mg mL(-1), whereas their CC50 values were 0.7 and 11 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results indicated that 42.7% of LNCaP cells were not dead by necrosis. Treating the HeLa cells by the furanocoumarins showed the greater sensitivity of the HeLa cell line than the LNCaP cell line. A morphological analysis and the study of DNA fragmentation provided further some evidence for the inhibition of the LNCaP cell line via apoptosis induction.”
“Background: Previous studies have identified lubricin (also known as superficial zone protein) as a lubricating glycoprotein present in several musculoskeletal tissues including articular cartilage, meniscus, and tendon. In this immunohistochemical study, we determined the presence and distribution of lubricin in the cells, extracellular matrix, and tissue surfaces of human nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus tissues.

The drug was also found to sublime at higher temperatures Determ

The drug was also found to sublime at higher temperatures. Determination of physicochemical properties CUDC-907 of NPC 1161C provided useful information for the development of a dosage form and preclinical evaluation.”
“Background: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are now widely used for prompt on-site diagnosis in remote endemic areas where reliable microscopy is absent. Aberrant results, whereby negative test results occur at high parasite densities, have been variously reported for over a decade and have led to questions regarding the reliability of the tests in clinical use.

Methods: In the first trial, serial dilutions

of recombinant HRP2 antigen were tested on an HRP2-detectiing RDT. In a second trial, serial dilutions of culture-derived Plasmodium falciparum parasites were NVP-BKM120 tested against three HRP2detecting RDTs.

Results: A prozone-like effect occurred in RDTs at a high concentration of the target antigen, histidine-rich protein-2 (above 15,000 ng/ml), a level that corresponds to more than 312000 parasites per mu L. Similar results were noted on three RDT products using dilutions of cultured parasites up to a parasite density of 25%. While reduced line intensity was observed, no false negative results occurred.

Conclusions: These results suggest that false-negative malaria RDT

results will rarely occur due to a prozone-like effect in high-density infections, and other causes are more likely. However, RDT line intensity is poorly indicative of parasite density in high-density infections and RDTs should, therefore, not be considered quantitative. Immediate management of suspected severe malaria should rely on clinical assessment or microscopy. Evaluation against high concentrations of antigen should be considered in malaria RDT product development and lot-release testing, to Rapamycin ensure that very

weak or false negative results will not occur at antigen concentrations that might be seen clinically.”
“A novel technique based on microwave irradiation was developed to synthesize polyhydrazide and polythiohydrazide. These polymers were readily synthesized by the reaction of aromatic and aliphatic dihydrazides with urea and thiourea. The effects of microwave irradiation time, power, solvent nature, and solid content of monomers on the inherent viscosity of the polymers were investigated. The polymers were characterized by 1H-NMR and IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Most antidepressants and anticonvulsants used in chronic pain syndromes have dose- and concentration-response curves developed for their application to treat psychiatric disorders.

9%), stenosis

(3 6%) and ureteral reflux with recurrent g

9%), stenosis

(3.6%) and ureteral reflux with recurrent graft pyelonephritis (1.1%). Thirty-five patients underwent native ureteropyelostomy, and 14 patients had redo-ureterocystostomy. Navitoclax ic50 All patients treated for recurrent graft pyelonephritis had no further episodes. Overall, the rate of ureteral stenosis was significantly higher after secondary surgery, compared to the primary anastomosis (10% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.039). A significantly lower incidence of graft pyelonephritis was observed in patients after native ureteropyelostomy compared to patients treated with redo-ureterocystostomy (p = 0.019). In conclusion, reflux and recurrent graft pyelonephritis can be treated effectively by secondary surgery. The use of native ureteropyelostomy may offer protection from graft pyelonephritis after secondary surgery.”
“Complete Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells in which the collecting heterojunctions were formed by chemical bath deposition of CdS were analyzed by

transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The CIGS was produced at 400 or 580 degrees C as either single layers or in a two-step bilayer process. The compositions of grain Stattic cell line boundaries were found to be the same as the grains before CdS deposition except in the low temperature-deposited bilayer but after CdS was formed the grain boundaries were found to be anion deficient with some evidence of Cu loss from the CIGS and residual Cu found in the CdS in most cases. The results are consistent with n-type doping of the surface of the CIGS and wrapping of the junction around the grains. In bilayer films the grain boundaries were found to be more open containing many voids and this facilitated penetration of the CdS into the boundaries. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3512966]“
“Phenotypic LY2606368 molecular weight plasticity in general and polyphenic development in particular are thought to play important roles in organismal diversification and evolutionary innovation. Focusing on the evolutionary developmental biology of insects, and specifically that of horned beetles, I explore

the avenues by which phenotypic plasticity and polyphenic development have mediated the origins of novelty and diversity. Specifically, I argue that phenotypic plasticity generates novel targets for evolutionary processes to act on, as well as brings about trade-offs during development and evolution, thereby diversifying evolutionary trajectories available to natural populations. Lastly, I examine the notion that in those cases in which phenotypic plasticity is underlain by modularity in gene expression, it results in a fundamental trade-off between degree of plasticity and mutation accumulation. On one hand, this trade-off limits the extent of plasticity that can be accommodated by modularity of gene expression.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that perovskite-type oxide o

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that perovskite-type oxide on carbon support catalysts could be a potential substitute for Pt for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction

(ORR) in air-cathode MFCs. (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“A high power microwave generator based on a relativistic backward wave oscillator with a resonant reflector (BWO-RR) has been proposed in order to improve microwave conversion efficiency. In this device, the slow wave structure is separated by a modulation cavity, which significantly decreases the energy spread of the modulated beam electrons. At the end of the slow wave structure, an extraction cavity is employed to increase the beam-wave interaction and optimize the extraction of the output power. Particle-in-cell simulations show selleck screening library that a microwave efficiency of 46% has been obtained compared with that of 34% obtained with the BWO-RR.”
“BACKGROUND: Chronic posterolateral knee injuries often result in substantial find more patient morbidity and functional instability. The clinical stability and functional outcomes following anatomic reconstructions in patients with a chronic posterolateral knee injury have not been determined, to our knowledge.

METHODS: A two-center outcomes study of sixty-four patients

with grade-3 chronic posterolateral instability was performed. The patients were evaluated subjectively with the modified Cincinnati and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores and objectively with the IKDC objective score.

RESULTS: Eighteen patients had an isolated posterolateral knee reconstruction, and forty-six patients underwent a single-stage multiple-ligament reconstruction that included reconstruction of one or both cruciate ligaments along with the posterolateral knee reconstruction. The average duration of follow-up was 4.3 years. The fifty-four patients who were available for follow-up had an average total

Cincinnati score of 65.7 points. A significant improvement was found between the preoperative and postoperative IKDC objective scores for varus opening at 20 degrees, external rotation at selleck 30 degrees, reverse pivot shift, and single-leg hop.

CONCLUSIONS: An anatomic posterolateral reconstruction resulted in improved clinical outcomes and objective stability for patients with a grade-3 posterolateral knee injury.”
“BACKGROUND: The present work aimed to optimize a new economic medium for lipopeptide biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis SPB1 for application in the environmental field as an enhancer of diesel solubility. Statistical experimental designs and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the medium components. RESULTS: A central composite design was applied to increase the production yield and predict the optimal values of the selected factors. An optimal medium, for biosurfactant production of about 4.

In this study, varying amounts of carbon black (CB: 2 to 10 wt %)

In this study, varying amounts of carbon black (CB: 2 to 10 wt %), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT: 0.5 to 8 wt %), or exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (GNP: 2 to 15 wt %) were added to polycarbonate (PC) and the resulting composites were tested for electrical conductivity (EC = 1/electrical resistivity). The percolation threshold was similar to 1.2 vol % CNT, similar to 2.4 vol % CB, and similar to 4.6 vol % GNP. In addition, three EC models (Mamunya, additive,

and general effective media) were developed for the CB/PC, CNT/PC, Kinase Inhibitor Library supplier and GNP/PC composites. The general effective media (GEM) model showed the best agreement with the experimental results over the entire range of filler concentrations (above and below the percolation threshold) for all three composite systems. In addition, the GEM model can be easily adapted for composites containing combinations of different conductive fillers. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Although use of sedation protocols and daily sedation interruption (DSI) improve outcome, their current use and barriers affecting their use are unclear.

Methods: We designed a multidisciplinary, Web-based survey to determine current use of sedation protocols and DSI and the perceived barriers to each, and administered check details it to members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine.

Results: The 904 responders were

physicians (60%), nurses (14%), or pharmacists AZD8055 cell line (12%); 45% worked in a university hospital. Of 64% having a sedation protocol, 78% used it for >= 50% of ventilated patients. Reasons for lack of protocol use included no physician order (35%), lack of nursing support (11%), and a fear of oversedation (7%). Daily sedation interruption was used by only 40%. Barriers to DSI included lack of nursing acceptance (22%), concern about risk of patient-initiated device removal (19%), and inducement of either respiratory compromise (26%) or patient discomfort (13%). Clinicians who prefer propofol were more likely to use DSI than those who prefer benzodiazepines

(55% vs 40, P < .0001).

Conclusions: Current intensive care unit sedation practices are heterogeneous, and the barriers preventing the use of both sedation protocols and DSI are numerous. These barriers should be addressed on an institutional basis to boost the use of these evidence-based practices. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We have investigated the solubility of Y in rutile RuO(2) using experimental and theoretical methods. Nanostructured Ru-Y-O thin films were synthesized via combinatorial reactive sputtering with an O/metal ratio of 2.6 and a Y content of 0.3 to 12.6 at. %. A solubility limit of 1.7 at. % was identified using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Based on ab initio and thermodynamic modeling, the solubility of Y can be understood.

“The aim of the study was to evaluate patient-reported qua

“The aim of the study was to evaluate patient-reported quality of life effects of post-treatment intraoral and extraoral rehabilitation in head and neck cancer by repeated measures.

Fifty-nine patients were involved. Basic socio-demographic, oncological and epidemiological data were gathered, and the type of rehabilitation was recorded. For the assessment of quality of AZD1208 JAK/STAT inhibitor life changes, two widely used brief questionnaires, the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Head and Neck module of the European Organization of Research and Treatment for Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, were used. The questionnaires were administered to patients two times: the

first time after tumor therapy, but before rehabilitation (upon arriving for rehabilitation) and the second time 6 months after the application of any particular method of rehabilitation. Quality of life data were

gathered prospectively, while socio-demographic data were gathered from patient files.

Quality of life after rehabilitation was significantly enhanced as compared to the post-treatment status, in all domains of both questionnaires (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U).

The results support the hypothesis that post-treatment maxillofacial rehabilitation in head and neck cancer does not only restore lost physical capabilities, see more but also brings about profound changes in patients’ quality of life in general.”
“Background: We previously reported that a randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplements in rural Nepal decreased the risk of low birth

weight by approximate to 15%.

Objective: The objective was to examine the effects GW786034 of micronutrient supplementation on growth and body composition in children of supplemented mothers through school age.

Design: Mothers received 1 of 5 micronutrient supplements daily: folic acid, folic acid + iron, folic acid + iron + zinc, multiple micro-nutrients, or a control. All of the supplements contained vitamin A. Children born during this trial were revisited at age 6-8 y to measure height, weight, midupper arm circumference, waist circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Arm fat and muscle area were estimated by using standard formulas, and height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index-for-age z scores were calculated by using the World Health Organization growth standard.

Results: Of the 3771 surviving children, 3324 were revisited and consented to anthropometric measurements. Maternal supplementation with folic acid + iron + zinc resulted in an increase in mean height (0.64 cm; 95% CI: 0.04, 1.25) and a reduction in mean triceps skinfold thickness (-0.25 mm; 95% CI: -0.44, -0.06), subscapular skinfold thickness (-0.20 mm; 95% CI: -0.33, -0.06), and arm fat area (-0.18 cm(2); -0.34, -0.01).

An aim has been to obtain microscopic parameters and to search fo

An aim has been to obtain microscopic parameters and to search for the characteristic lengths in terms of which one can discuss the interplay between magnetic, electric, and phonon excitations. The BAY 57-1293 molecular weight structural and magnetotransport measurements reveal a set of relatively high transition temperatures (near 300 K) between ferromagnetic/metallic and paramagnetic/semiconducting phases. It is found, in particular, that the so-called localization length increases from 0.085 to 0.24 nm when the magnetic field varies from 0 to 8 T. Moreover a “”special field value”" similar to 0.03 T is observed in the description of the electrical resistance. It cannot be presently distinguished whether it is the signature

of a spin reorientation transition in the canted phase or a mere saturation field for aligning magnetic domains. The relatively high magnetoresistance effect (similar or equal to 55% at 8 T and 10 K) makes the La0.5Ba0.5MnO3 a very interesting material for among others sensor applications. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3032326]“
“This study was designed to investigate the effect of feeding on the plasma disposition of triclabendazole (TCBZ) in goats following oral

AZD6094 molecular weight administration. A total of eight goats, aged 14-16 months and weighing 20-30 kg were used in this study. The animals were allocated into two groups (fasted and fed groups) of four animals each. The goats in fed group were fed ad libitum but the animals in fasted GS-9973 mouse group were not fed 24 h before and 6 h after drug administration. Commercial oral drench formulation of TCBZ (Endex-K, 5%) was administered orally

to animals in two groups at dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight. Heparinized blood samples were collected between 1 and 192 h after treatment and the plasma samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for TCBZ, TCBZ sulphoxide (TCBZ-SO), and TCBZ sulphone (TCBZ-SO(2)). Relatively very low concentration of TCBZ parent drug was detected between 2 and 48 h, but TCBZ-SO and TCBZ-SO(2) metabolites were present between 2 and 192 h in the plasma samples of fed and fasted animals. Fasting significantly enhanced the plasma concentration of TCBZ and its metabolites. The availability of TCBZ, TCBZ-SO and TCBZ-SO(2) in the plasma samples of fasted goats were markedly greater compared to those of fed goats. It was concluded that fasting decreases the digesta flow rate and prolongs the retention of the drug into the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in enhanced quantitative gastrointestinal absorption or systemic availability of TCBZ and its metabolites in fasted goats. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The ultraviolet-enhanced (UV-enhanced) contamination of optical components leads to an untimely aging of sealed laser systems, photolithography, and synchrotron installations. The laser-induced deposition of organic films on silica substrates and coatings significantly reduces their transmission and degrades their optical functions.