There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in

There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX), intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX) and Sparfloxacin (SFX), and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular

mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase Selleck Lonafarnib and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV.”
“Neuropathy and impaired axonal regeneration are common complications of diabetes mellitus. Singh et al. reveal upregulation of the tumour suppressor PTEN in peripheral neurons in a mouse model of diabetes. Knockdown of PTEN by siRNA in vitro and in vivo enhanced the regeneration of diabetic axons following injury.Diabetes mellitus renders both

widespread and localized irreversible damage to peripheral axons while imposing critical limitations on their ability to regenerate. A major AR-13324 inhibitor failure of regenerative capacity thereby imposes a ‘double hit’ in diabetic patients who frequently develop focal neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome in addition to generalized diffuse polyneuropathy. The mechanisms of diabetic neuron regenerative failure have been speculative and few approaches have offered therapeutic opportunities. In this work we identify an unexpected but major role for PTEN upregulation in diabetic peripheral neurons in attenuating axon regrowth. In chronic diabetic neuropathy 4SC-202 inhibitor models in mice, we identified significant PTEN upregulation in peripheral sensory neurons of messenger RNA and protein compared to littermate controls.

In vitro, sensory neurons from these mice responded to PTEN knockdown with substantial rises in neurite outgrowth and branching. To test regenerative plasticity in a chronic diabetic model with established neuropathy, we superimposed an additional focal sciatic nerve crush injury and assessed morphological, electrophysiological and behavioural recovery. Knockdown of PTEN in dorsal root ganglia ipsilateral to the side of injury was achieved using a unique form of non-viral short interfering RNA delivery to the ipsilateral nerve injury site and paw. In comparison with scrambled sequence control short interfering RNA, PTEN short interfering RNA improved several facets of regeneration: recovery of compound muscle action potentials, reflecting numbers of reconnected motor axons to endplates, conduction velocities of both motor and sensory axons, reflecting their maturation during regrowth, numbers and calibre of regenerating myelinated axons distal to the injury site, reinnervation of the skin by unmyelinated epidermal axons and recovery of mechanical sensation.

The key aspect of the automation procedure was the sequential ded

The key aspect of the automation procedure was the sequential deductive source categorisation after ICA was applied with a restriction to 4 sources. The stereotypical aspect of the 4 sources enables their automatic classification

as two artefact components, a noise and the sought ECAP based on theoretical and empirical considerations. Results: The automatic procedure was tested using 8 cochlear implant (CI) users and one to four stimulus electrodes. The artefact and noise sources were successively identified and discarded, leaving the ECAP as the remaining source. The automated ECAP-ICA procedure successfully extracted the correct ECAPs compared to standard clinical forward masking paradigm in 22 out of 26 cases. Comparison with existing method(s): ECAP-ICA does not ACY-738 nmr require extracting the ECAP from a combination of distinct buffers as it is the case with regular methods. It is an alternative that does not have the possible bias of traditional artefact rejections such as alternate-polarity or forward-masking

paradigms. Conclusions: The ECAP-ICA procedure bears clinical relevance, for example as the artefact rejection sub-module of automated ECAP-threshold detection techniques, which are common features of CI clinical fitting software. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“A new laccase from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina has been isolated and identified. The 73 kDa protein containing 4 coppers, truncated from its first 31 amino acids, was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and purified in one step with a yield of 48%

and a specific activity of 644 U mg(-1). The kinetic parameters, k(cat) and K-M, determined at 37 degrees C and optimal pH are 1372 s(-1) and 307 mu M for ABTS and, 1.29 s(-1) and 10.9 mu M, for syringaldazine (SGZ). Unlike other laccases, the new protein displays a better thermostability, with a half life > 400 min at 37 degrees C, is less sensitive to chloride and more stable at pH 7. Even BMS-754807 purchase though, the new 566 amino-acid enzyme displays a large homology with Bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from Myrothecium verrucaria (58%) and exhibits the four histidine rich domains consensus sequences of BODs, the new enzyme is not able to oxidize neither conjugated nor unconjugated bilirubin. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“It was recently reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr induced the proteasomal degradation of the nuclear UNG2 enzyme for efficient virus replication. We confirm here that HIV-1 infection and Vpr expression reduce the level of endogenous UNG2, but this effect is not reverted by treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, this reduction is not mediated by Vpr binding to UNG2 and is independent of the Vpr-induced G2 arrest. Finally, we show that Vpr influences the UNG2 promoter without affecting UNG1 gene expression.

Combining these high-resolution imaging techniques with the expre

Combining these high-resolution imaging techniques with the expression of fluorescent cytoskeletal fusion proteins in live cells using correlative microscopy procedures will usher in an radical change in our understanding of the molecular dynamics that underpin the organization and function of the cytoskeleton.”
“Mating plugs have been described in many species, and their presence often implies a function in protecting a male’s ejaculate. Yet, explicit functions are not always tested.

In this study, we test whether fragments of male genitalia lodged in the female genital opening of the St Andrew’s Cross spider (Argiope keyserlingi) are mating plugs and prevent female remating. Further, we test whether copulation duration, cannibalism, and male or female size affect the lodgement and persistence of these genital fragments. We show that males always break off a genital fragment, which when lodged in the female genital opening, can successfully prevent female remating. However,

the lodgement of a genital fragment is not always successful and it may not persist for a prolonged period. Whether a genital fragment is successfully retained is influenced by female control over copulation duration. We have Epigenetics inhibitor previously shown that females can terminate copulation duration by attacking the male, which may or may not lead to cannibalism. If females terminate copulations early, genital fragments are either

not lodged or do not persist. Male size can offset female control with larger males lodging more persistent fragments. Contrary to predictions, sexual cannibalism was not related to how long the fragment persisted within the female. We demonstrate the existence of mating GDC-0994 ic50 plugs in St Andrew’s Cross spiders and document considerable variation in the formation and persistence of mating plugs that is likely to reflect male and female conflict over mate plugging.”
“In addition to its antibacterial activity, the cathelicidin-derived LL-37 peptide induces multiple immunomodulatory effects on host cells. Atomic force microscopy, F-actin staining with phalloidin, passage of FITC-conjugated dextran through a monolayer of lung epithelial cells, and assessment of bacterial outgrowth from cells subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were used to determine LL-37′s effect on epithelial cell mechanical properties, permeability, and bacteria uptake. A concentration-dependent increase in stiffness and F-actin content in the cortical region of A549 cells and primary human lung epithelial cells was observed after treatment with LL-37 (0.5-5 mu M), sphingosine 1-phosphate (1 mu M), or LPS (1 mu g/ml) or infection with PAO1 bacteria.

“Stent-based delivery of tacrolimus has shown neointimal

“Stent-based delivery of tacrolimus has shown neointimal

hyperplasia and restenosis reduction; FK506 is a water insoluble macrolide immunosuppressant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute and chronic tissue response to a polymer-free FK506 drug-eluting stent implantation in a porcine coronary artery model. Seventy-eight nonatherosclerotic minipigs underwent successful placement of 134 stents (control n = 56; FK506 (1.5 mu g/mm(2)) n = 44; FK506 (2.6 mu g/mm(2)) n = 34) at 7, 15, 30, 90, or 180 days. Endothelialisation was almost complete at 7 days, complete at 15 days. At 30 and 90 days, mean neointimal thickness, neointimal area, and % stenosis was significantly less for drug-eluting stents compared with controls. At 180 days, histomorphometric click here values were similar for eluting and control stents. The FK506-eluting stent allows for a complete re-endothelialisation at 15 days and favorably moderate neointimal hyperplasia at 30 and 90 days in the porcine coronary model. Because of a possible limited bioavailability of FK506, long-term inhibition of neointimal formation was not sustained at the considered follow-up. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 88A: 872-879, 2009″
“Testicular spermatozoa are

utilized to achieve pregnancy in couples with severe male factor infertility. Several studies suggest that aneuploidy rates in spermatozoa are elevated at the testicular level in infertile patients Quizartinib mw compared to ejaculates of normal controls. However, essential data regarding aneuploidy rates between ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa in the same individuals is lacking. selleck compound The purpose of our study was to compare aneuploidy rates at the testicular and post-testicular level from the same patients with persistently high sperm DNA damage. Ejaculates and testicular biopsies were obtained from eight patients with persistently high DNA damage (>30%). Both ejaculated and testicular samples were analyzed for sperm DNA damage and sperm aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y. In addition, semen samples from ten normozoospermic men

presenting for fertility evaluation served as a control group. A strong correlation between the alteration of spermatogenesis and chromatin deterioration was observed in our study. In the same individuals, testicular samples showed a significantly lower DNA damage compared to ejaculated spermatozoa (14.9% +/- 5.0 vs. 40.6% +/- 14.8, P < 0.05), but significantly higher aneuploidy rates for the five analyzed chromosomes (12.41% +/- 3.7 vs. 5.77% +/- 1.2, P < 0.05). While testicular spermatozoa appear favourable for ICSI in terms of lower DNA damage, this potential advantage could be offset by the higher aneuploidy rates in testicular spermatozoa.”
“Symbiotic relationships are widespread in nature and are fundamental for ecosystem functioning and the evolution of biodiversity.

To compare the epidemiology of sharps injuries reported in a larg

To compare the epidemiology of sharps injuries reported in a large Irish teaching hospital in 2008-10 with those reported between 1998 and 2000. We compared data from electronic and paper OH records of sharps injuries reported HSP990 between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010 with those from a previous study of sharps injuries reported between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2000. A total of 325 sharps injuries were reported in 2008-10, compared with 332 in 1998-2000 (P = 0.568). Hepatitis B immunity in sharps injury recipients in 2008-10 was 87% compared

to 86% in 1998-2000 (P = 0.32). Glove use was reported in 80% of reported injuries in 2008-10 compared with 74% in 1998-2000 (P = 0.32). In 2008-10, 49% of injuries occurred during disposal or following improper disposal of sharps, compared with 42% in 1998-2000. There was no significant change in

the epidemiology of sharps injuries reported between 2008 and 2010 compared with 1998-2000. Further education in standard precautions, safe disposal of sharps, the use of safety-engineered devices and the benefits of hepatitis B immunization is needed.”
“Background: Most of our current findings on appendage formation and patterning stem from studies on chordate and ecdysozoan model organisms. However, in order to fully understand the evolution of animal appendages, it is essential to include information on appendage development from lophotrochozoan representatives. 3-MA order Here, we examined the basic dynamics of the Octopus vulgaris arm’s formation and differentiation -as a highly evolved member of the lophotrochozoan PF 00299804 super phylum -with a special focus on the formation of the arm’s musculature. Results: The

octopus arm forms during distinct phases, including an early outgrowth from an epithelial thickening, an elongation, and a late differentiation into mature tissue types. During early arm outgrowth, uniform proliferation leads to the formation of a rounded bulge, which subsequently elongates along its proximal-distal axis by means of actin-mediated epithelial cell changes. Further differentiation of all tissue layers is initiated but end-differentiation is postponed to post-hatching stages. Interestingly, muscle differentiation shows temporal differences in the formation of distinct muscle layers. Particularly, first myocytes appear in the area of the future transverse prior to the longitudinal muscle layer, even though the latter represents the more dominant muscle type at hatching stage. Sucker rudiments appear as small epithelial outgrowths with a mesodermal and ectodermal component on the oral part of the arm. During late differentiation stages, cell proliferation becomes localized to a distal arm region termed the growth zone of the arm. Conclusions: O. vulgaris arm formation shows both, similarities to known model species as well as species-specific patterns of arm formation.

IMRT plans generated with the 160-MLC were found to significantly

IMRT plans generated with the 160-MLC were found to significantly reduce the total delivered monitor units by up to 14.7% and the number of segments by as much as 10.7% compared to the 58-MLC. The average delivery time for the direct aperture optimized (DAO) IMRT plans generated with the 160-MLC buy Crenigacestat was approximately 5 minutes. Overall, compared to the 58-MLC, the new 160-MLC was found to improve dosimetric

conformity and IMRT delivery efficiency.”
“Foot-and-mouth disease, the most devastating and highly contagious viral disease of cloven-footed animals, causes significant financial losses either due to deaths of young animals, loss of milk, meat and drastic fall in productive performances or serious limitations on development of livestock industry due to restrictions on international trade. In spite of the considerable information accumulated in the last years on the disease, it still affects extensive areas of the world and ranks as first in the list ‘A’ of infectious diseases of animals according to the Office International des Epizooties, Perris, France. In this review, we have to summarize the state of knowledge in basic and applied areas of FMD research with emphasis on epidemiology and diagnosis to make progress in controlling the disease

from the livestock.”
“Low-contrast images, such as color microscopic images of unstained histological specimens, are composed of objects with highly correlated spectral profiles. Such images are very hard to segment. Here, we present a method that nonlinearly maps low-contrast color image into an image with an increased number of non-physical channels and a decreased CT99021 correlation between spectral profiles. The method is a proof-of-concept validated on the unsupervised segmentation of color images of unstained

specimens, in which case the tissue components appear colorless when viewed under the light microscope. Specimens of human hepatocellular carcinoma, human liver with metastasis from colon and gastric cancer and mouse fatty liver were used for validation. The average correlation between the spectral profiles of the tissue components was greater than 0.9985, and the worst case correlation was greater than 0.9997. The proposed method can potentially PLX4032 solubility dmso be applied to the segmentation of low-contrast multichannel images with high spatial resolution that arise in other imaging modalities.”
“We have investigated the impacts of 63 different low-molecular-weight compounds, most of them plant derived, on the in vitro expression of two antifungal biosynthetic genes by the plant-protecting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. The majority of the compounds tested affected the expression of one or both antifungal genes. This suggests that biocontrol activity in plant-beneficial pseudomonads is modulated by plant-bacterium signaling.”
“Myxococcus fulvus HW-1, a salt-tolerant bacterial strain, which was isolated from a coastal environment, changes its behavior with different salinities.

In the present work, we have optimized the parameters critical to

In the present work, we have optimized the parameters critical to the application of BAC DNA

electrotransformation into E. coli. Systematic evaluation of electroporation variables has revealed several key factors like temperature of growth, media supplements, washing buffer, and cell concentration. Improvements made in the transformation protocol have led to electrocompetent cells with transformation efficiency up to 7 x 10(8) selleck kinase inhibitor transformants per microgram of 120 kbp BAC plasmid DNA. We have successfully used in-house prepared competent cells, the quality of which is comparable with those produced by different companies, in the construction of metagenomic libraries from the soil. Our protocol can also be beneficial

for other application with limited DNA source.”
“We prepared boron-doped Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 (Si:B/SiGe) multilayers sputter-deposited on quartz glass substrates, and investigated their structural and thermoelectric properties. These samples were processed by using conventional whole-layer annealing and layer-by-layer annealing methods. Si:B/SiGe multilayer samples annealed layer-by-layer showed good periodicity with well-defined interfaces as compared with conventionally annealed samples (whole-layer annealing). However, Ge diffusion was observed at the interfaces near substrates since the SiGe layer near the substrates suffered a longer integrated annealing time during the layer-by-layer annealing process. It was found that the Si:B/SiGe multilayer annealed layer-by-layer showed thermally stable thermoelectric SBE-β-CD molecular weight properties in a wide temperature range from 50 to 800 degrees C. The present experiment proved that

the layer-by-layer-annealing method is an effective way of achieving stable and reliable thermoelectric properties in Si:B/SiGe multilayer micro-thermoelectric devices. (C) 2014 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a major Ca2+ signaling pathway responsible for regulating numerous transcriptional events. In cardiomyocytes SOCE has been shown to play an important role in regulating hypertrophic signaling pathways, including nuclear translocation of LBH589 chemical structure NFAT. Acute activation of pathways leading to O-GlcNAc synthesis have been shown to impair SOCE-mediated transcription and in diabetes, where O-GlcNAc levels are chronically elevated, cardiac hypertrophic signaling is also impaired. Therefore the goal of this study was to determine whether changes in cardiomyocyte O-GlcNAc levels impaired the function of STIM1, a widely recognized mediator of SOCE. We demonstrated that acute activation of SOCE in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in STIM1 puncta formation, which was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by increasing O-GlcNAc synthesis with glucosamine or inhibiting O-GlcNAcase with thiamet-G.

Compared with inactivity and category 1 activities (eg, swimming)

Compared with inactivity and category 1 activities (eg, swimming), category 2 activities (eg, basketball) were associated with a transient increase in the risk of bleeding (30.6% of bleed windows vs 24.8% of first control windows; odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.8, P < .001). Category 3 activities (eg, wrestling) were associated with a greater

transient increase in risk (7.0% of bleed windows vs 3.4% of first control windows; odds ratio, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.3-7.3, P < .001). To illustrate absolute risk increase, for a child who bleeds 5 times annually and is exposed on average to category 2 activities twice weekly and to category 3 activities once weekly, exposure to these activities was associated with only 1 of the 5 annual bleeds. see more For every 1% increase in clotting factor level, bleeding incidence was lower by 2% (95% CI, 1%-3%; P=.004).\n\nConclusions In children and

adolescents with hemophilia, vigorous physical activity was transiently associated with a moderate relative increase in risk of bleeding. Because the increased relative risk is transient, the absolute increase in risk of bleeds associated with physical activity is likely to be small. JAMA. 2012;308(14):1452-1459”
“Unconventional myosins are proteins that bind actin filaments in an ATP-regulated manner. Because of their association with membranes, they have traditionally been viewed as motors that function primarily to transport membranous organelles along actin filaments. Recently, however, a wealth of roles for myosins GW4869 purchase that are not obviously related to organelle transport have been uncovered, including organization of F-actin, mitotic spindle regulation and gene transcription. Furthermore, it has also become apparent that the motor domains of different myosins vary strikingly in their biophysical attributes. We suggest that the assumption that most unconventional myosins function primarily as organelle transporters might be misguided.”
“Ovarian hormone decline after

menopause may buy Combretastatin A4 influence cognitive performance and increase the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in women. We have recently demonstrated that a combination of ovariectomy and chronic stress (OVX/stress) causes hippocampus-associated cognitive dysfunction in mice. In this study, we examined whether OVX/stress could affect the levels of AD-related molecules in the mouse hippocampus. Female ICR mice were ovariectomized or sham-operated, and then randomly divided into a daily restraint stress (21 days, 6 h/day) or non-stress group. Although OVX or stress alone did not affect beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) activity, OVX/stress increased activity in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, compared with other groups. In contrast, OVX/stress did not affect gamma-secretase activity, A beta(1-40), and phosphorylated-tau levels in the hippocampus.

This compartment likely contains CSCs since it

is express

This compartment likely contains CSCs since it

is expressing the putative CSC markers CD44, ALDH1 and CK14. This cell layer therefore should be considered a major therapeutic target in the treatment of head and neck cancer. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the clinical effectiveness of snapshot inversion recovery (SNAPIR), which is a dedicated optimized inversion-recovery-prepared single-shot fast SBC-115076 spin-echo T1-weighted sequence, in the delineation of normal fetal brain anatomy compared with that of the currently used T1-weighted gradient-echo protocol, which often yields images of poor quality due to motion artifacts and inadequate contrast.\n\nMaterials and Methods: This study was approved by the hospital research ethics committee,

and informed written consent was obtained from all patients. Forty-one fetuses were examined at 19-37 weeks gestation (mean, 29 weeks gestation) by using both the standard T1-weighted protocol and the optimized T1-weighted SNAPIR protocol with a 1.5-T selleck inhibitor imager. Two independent blinded observers performed qualitative analysis, evaluating overall diagnostic quality, detailed anatomic delineation, and severity of motion artifacts. Quantitative analysis comprised calculation of contrast ratios (CRs) for the cortical gray matter, subplate, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare image rating scores, the paired t test was used to compare CRs, and kappa statistics were used to test interobserver agreement.\n\nResults: Both overall diagnostic quality (P < .001) and detailed anatomic delineation (P < .001) were enhanced with SNAPIR compared with the standard T1-weighted acquisition. Also, motion artifacts were

less severe (P = .008) and less extensive (P < .001) with SNAPIR. Corresponding CRs were increased with SNAPIR in seven of eight examined regions.\n\nConclusion: CAL-101 order SNAPIR is a promising robust alternative to the current T1-weighted acquisitions; its role in the detection of disease requires further study. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Background: Guidelines recommend evaluation of cardiac function, valvular and ischemic heart disease, and thyroid, kidney, and liver function on initial diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Hypothesis: We hypothesized that initial workup of patients with newly identified AF would vary by age, sex, and burden of comorbid illness. Methods: In a retrospective analysis of a large sample of commercially insured patients 18 to 64 years old (n = 40 245) and a nationally representative 5% cohort of Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older (n = 204 676), we measured claims for guideline-recommended services for initial evaluation of AF among patients with a new diagnosis between 2000 and 2008.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgery to produc

\n\nMethods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgery to produce bladder outlet obstruction (bladder outlet obstruction group; n = 32) or sham surgery

(sham group; n = 16). A total of 2 weeks later, 16 bladder outlet obstruction-rats were given the AT1 antagonist, candesartan, subcutaneously (candesartan group) using an osmotic pump for 4 weeks; the remaining bladder outlet obstruction-rats received vehicle (bladder outlet obstruction group). A total of 6 weeks after surgery, we compared continuous cystometry, bladder weight, strip contraction, histology and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of growth factors, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and renin-angiotensin system components among the three groups.\n\nResults: click here Bladder weights markedly increased with bladder outlet obstruction (578 +/- 159 mg), and candesartan (344 +/- 111 mg) suppressed this increase. Micturition pressure, which was significantly higher with bladder outlet obstruction, was unaffected by candesartan. The shortened micturition interval and decreased micturition volume with bladder outlet obstruction were significantly prolonged and increased by candesartan. Candesartan also significantly decreased residual urine. Histologically, the collagen

fiber-to-muscle ratio was significantly increased with bladder outlet obstruction (0.85 +/- 0.25) compared with the sham group (0.53 +/- 0.18); this increase was suppressed by candesartan (0.49 +/- 0.21). The messenger ribonucleic acid Selleckchem BAY 73-4506 expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase find more 1 significantly increased with bladder outlet obstruction, but it was significantly reduced by candesartan. Compared with the bladder outlet obstruction group, candesartan increased the maximal

contraction of bladder strips for all stimuli except for angiotensin II.\n\nConclusion: These findings suggest that bladder angiotensin II type 1 receptors contribute to the pathophysiology of remodeling and dysfunction in obstructed bladder.”
“The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, located within a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15, encodes a fetal and placental growth factor affecting birth weight. DNA methylation variability at the IGF2 gene locus has been previously reported but its consequences on fetal growth and development are still mostly unknown in normal pediatric population. We collected one hundred placenta biopsies from 50 women with corresponding maternal and cord blood samples and measured anthropometric indices, blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes using standardized procedures. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation and IGF2 circulating levels were assessed using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and ELISA, respectively.