Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgery to produc

\n\nMethods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgery to produce bladder outlet obstruction (bladder outlet obstruction group; n = 32) or sham surgery

(sham group; n = 16). A total of 2 weeks later, 16 bladder outlet obstruction-rats were given the AT1 antagonist, candesartan, subcutaneously (candesartan group) using an osmotic pump for 4 weeks; the remaining bladder outlet obstruction-rats received vehicle (bladder outlet obstruction group). A total of 6 weeks after surgery, we compared continuous cystometry, bladder weight, strip contraction, histology and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of growth factors, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and renin-angiotensin system components among the three groups.\n\nResults: click here Bladder weights markedly increased with bladder outlet obstruction (578 +/- 159 mg), and candesartan (344 +/- 111 mg) suppressed this increase. Micturition pressure, which was significantly higher with bladder outlet obstruction, was unaffected by candesartan. The shortened micturition interval and decreased micturition volume with bladder outlet obstruction were significantly prolonged and increased by candesartan. Candesartan also significantly decreased residual urine. Histologically, the collagen

fiber-to-muscle ratio was significantly increased with bladder outlet obstruction (0.85 +/- 0.25) compared with the sham group (0.53 +/- 0.18); this increase was suppressed by candesartan (0.49 +/- 0.21). The messenger ribonucleic acid Selleckchem BAY 73-4506 expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase find more 1 significantly increased with bladder outlet obstruction, but it was significantly reduced by candesartan. Compared with the bladder outlet obstruction group, candesartan increased the maximal

contraction of bladder strips for all stimuli except for angiotensin II.\n\nConclusion: These findings suggest that bladder angiotensin II type 1 receptors contribute to the pathophysiology of remodeling and dysfunction in obstructed bladder.”
“The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, located within a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15, encodes a fetal and placental growth factor affecting birth weight. DNA methylation variability at the IGF2 gene locus has been previously reported but its consequences on fetal growth and development are still mostly unknown in normal pediatric population. We collected one hundred placenta biopsies from 50 women with corresponding maternal and cord blood samples and measured anthropometric indices, blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes using standardized procedures. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation and IGF2 circulating levels were assessed using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and ELISA, respectively.

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