However, previous studies suggested that none of the currently sa

However, previous studies suggested that none of the currently sampled bat SLCoVs is the descendant of the direct ancestor of SCoV, based on their relatively distant phylogenetic relationship. In this study, evidence of the recombinant origin of the genome of a bat SLCoV is demonstrated. We identified a potential recombination breakpoint immediately BAY 11-7082 ic50 after the consensus intergenic sequence between open reading frame 1 and the S coding region, suggesting the replication intermediates may participate in the recombination event, as previously speculated for other CoVs. Phylogenetic analysis of its parental regions suggests the presence of an uncharacterized

SLCoV lineage that is phylogenetically closer to SCoVs than any of the currently sampled bat SLCoVs. Using various Bayesian molecular-clock models, interspecies transfer of this SLCoV lineage from bats to the amplifying host (e.g., civets) was estimated to have happened a median

of 4.08 years before the SARS outbreak. Based on this relatively short window period, we speculate that this uncharacterized SLCoV lineage may contain the direct ancestor of SCoV. This study sheds light on the possible host bat species of the direct ancestor of SCoV, providing valuable information on the scope and focus of surveillance for the origin of SCoV.”
“Remote ischemic preconditioning is an emerging concept for stroke treatment, but its protection against focal stroke has not been established. We tested whether remote preconditioning, performed in the ipsilateral hind limb, protects against focal stroke and explored its protective parameters. Cl-amidine in vivo Stroke was generated by a permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) Ispinesib chemical structure combined with a 30 min occlusion of the bilateral

common carotid arteries (CCA) in male rats. Limb preconditioning was generated by 5 or 15 min occlusion followed with the same period of reperfusion of the left hind femoral artery, and repeated for two or three cycles. Infarct was measured 2 days later. The results showed that rapid preconditioning with three cycles of 15 min performed immediately before stroke reduced infarct size from 47.7 +/- 7.6% of control ischemia to 9.8 +/- 8.6%; at two cycles of 15 min, infarct was reduced to 24.7 +/- 7.3%; at two cycles of 5 min, infarct was not reduced. Delayed preconditioning with three cycles of 15 min conducted 2 days before stroke also reduced infarct to 23.0 +/- 10.9%, but with two cycles of 15 min it offered no protection. The protective effects at these two therapeutic time windows of remote preconditioning are consistent with those of conventional preconditioning, in which the preconditioning ischemia is induced in the brain itself. Unexpectedly, intermediate preconditioning with three cycles of 15 min performed 12 h before stroke also reduced infarct to 24.7 +/- 4.

Bacopa monniera suppressed the diazepam induced upregulation of M

Bacopa monniera suppressed the diazepam induced upregulation of MAP kinase, pCREB and iNOS and attenuated the down-regulation of nitrite. It did not affect the cAMP, PDE, nitrate, total nitrite, total CREB level. These behavioral findings displayed the reversal of diazepam-induced amnesia by Bacopa monniera

without Hippo pathway inhibitor qualifying the molecular details although some down stream molecules of LTP may be involved. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) synthesizes neuronal 5-HT and its genetic variance is associated with numerous behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. This study characterized the functional significance of two

nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (C74A and G223A) in rhesus monkey TPH2 (mTPH2). Four haplotypes of mTPh2 were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and stably transfected into PC12 cells. The levels of mTPH2 mRNA and protein were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively, while the intracellular 5-HT was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The variant A-A haplotype showed significantly higher levels of mTPH2 mRNA and protein, as well as see more significantly higher 5-HT production than the wild-type C-G haplotype, while the other two variant haplotypes (C-A and A-G) also tended to produce more 5-HT than C-G haplotype when stably expressed in PC12 cells. Both C74A and G223A were predicted to change mRNA secondary structure, and analysis of the mRNA stability showed that the wild-type C-G haplotype mRNA degrades more quickly than mRNAs of the mutant mTPH2 haplotypes in both stable PC12 and transient HEK-293

cells. This study demonstrates that nonsynonymous SNPs in mTPH2 can affect mRNA stability. Our findings provide an additional mechanism by which nonsynonymous SNPs affect TPH2 function, and further our understanding of TPH2 gene expression regulation. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Thymidine kinase Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in the etiology of chronic pain. In this regard, this study sought to characterize the localization and expression pattern for the NMDAR-2D subunit in a rat model of neuropathic pain. To this end, one group of rats, 3 weeks post-dorsal root rhizotomy (DRR) and a second group, 3 weeks post-spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and sham surgery, were generated. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and/or lumbar spinal cord were excised from DRR, naive, SNL and sham rats. Both immunohistochemical and real-time PCR analysis confirmed discrete NMDAR-2D subunit expression within the DRG and dorsal horn. However, no overt differences in staining intensity or expression were noted between DRG and spinal cord sections obtained from the different surgical groups.

p twice daily for 15 days) on PKC gamma and mitogen-activated pr

p. twice daily for 15 days) on PKC gamma and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) expression has been evaluated in CCI (chronic constriction injury) rats. The sciatic nerve and the lumbar tract of the spinal cord were processed to evaluate the levels of the phosphorylated form of PKC gamma, ERK 1,2, SAP/JNK, p-38 and c-Jun; furthermore, the mRNA expression of the early genes c-Jun and c-Fos has been investigated. Fifteen days after injury, ABT737 the analysis in the sciatic nerves highlighted a bilateral increase

of the activated forms of PKC gamma, ERK 1,2 and SAP/JNK, whereas c-Jun showed an increase only ipsilaterally. ALCAR completely prevented mechanical hyperalgesia and provoked in the nerve a c-Jun increment only. In the lumbar tract of the spinal cord, higher levels of activated PKC gamma, ERK 1,2, p38, SAP/JNK and c-Jun proteins were detected in the ipsilateral buy GSK461364 side in respect of sham. ALCAR was able to stimulate this expression profile. At the transcriptional level c-Jun mRNA was increased in the ipsilateral side of spinal cord of CCI saline-treated

rats, whereas c-Fos mRNA was unchanged. ALCAR had a stimulatory effect on both these early genes. These findings may represent a different approach in the study of the complex balance between pain and neuroregeneration and could constitute the basis for developing new disease modifying agents in the treatment of neuropathic pain. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Learning by imitation is essential for transmitting many aspects of human culture, including speech, language, art, and music. How the human brain enables

imitation remains a mystery, but the underlying neural mechanisms must harness sensory feedback to adaptively modify performance in reference to the object of imitation. Although examples of imitative learning in nonhuman animals are relatively rare, juvenile songbirds learn to sing by copying the song BLZ945 order of an adult tutor. The delineation of neural circuits for birdsong raises the promise that this complex form of vocal learning, which bears strong parallels to human speech learning, can be understood in terms of underlying neural mechanisms. This promise is now being more fully realized, with recent experimental advances leading to better understanding of the central motor codes for song and the central mechanisms by which auditory experience modifies song motor commands to enable vocal learning.”
“Several studies have reported the neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li) suggesting its potential in the treatment of neurological disorders, among of them amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although the cause of motoneuron (MN) death in ALS remains unknown, there is evidence that glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity plays an important role.

5) on atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) predictors, including P-wa

5) on atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) predictors, including P-wave duration, PR interval duration, and P-wave complexity, were investigated in a community-dwelling sample of 106 nonsmokers. Individual-level 24-h beat-to-beat electrocardiogram (ECG) data were visually examined. After identifying and removing artifacts and arrhythmic beats, the 30-min averages of the AF predictors were calculated. A personal PM2.5 monitor was used to measure individual-level, real-time PM2.5 exposures

during the same 24-h Selleckchem CUDC-907 period, and corresponding 30-min average PM2.5 concentration were calculated. Under a linear mixed-effects modeling framework, distributed lag models were used to estimate regression coefficients (s) associating PM2.5 with AF predictors. Most of the adverse effects on AF predictors occurred within 1.5-2 h after PM2.5 exposure. The multivariable adjusted s per 10-g/m3 rise in PM 2.5 at lag 1 and lag 2 were significantly associated with P-wave complexity. PM2.5 exposure was also significantly associated with prolonged PR duration at lag 3 and lag 4. Higher PM2.5 was found to be associated with increases in P-wave Topoisomerase inhibitor complexity and PR duration. Maximal effects were observed within 2 h. These findings suggest that PM2.5 adversely affects AF predictors; thus, PM2.5 may be indicative of greater susceptibility to AF.”

exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, miners, and control subjects and explore the relationship between EC level, exposure history, and the extent of

chronic lung disease. The samples comprised three subgroups representing never smokers (8), chronic cigarette smokers (26), and coal miners (6). Following the dissolution of lung tissue, the extracted EC residue was quantified using a thermal-optical transmission (TOT) carbon analyzer. Mean EC levels in the lungs of the control group were 56.68 +/- 24.86 (SD) g/g dry lung weight. Respective mean EC values in lung samples from the smokers and coal miners were 449.56 +/- 320.3 AICAR order g/g and 6678.2 +/- 6162 g/g. These values were significantly higher than those obtained from the never-smoker group. EC levels in the lung and pack-years of cigarette smoking correlated significantly, as did EC levels and the severity of small airway disease. This study provides one of the first quantitative assessments of EC in human lungs from populations at high relative risk for the development of chronic lung disease.”
“Arsenic (As) is a known carcinogen commonly found in drinking water. An emerging body of evidence suggests that exposure to inorganic As may be associated with nonmalignant respiratory disease.

1 to 94 4% and 23 8 to 80 1% amino acid identities to those of Be

1 to 94.4% and 23.8 to 80.1% amino acid identities to those of Beilong virus and J virus, respectively.”
“There is an emerging interest in protein expression profiling with the aim of identifying novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets in breast cancer. We analyzed breast cancer tissues by 2-D DIGE using a narrow range IPG strip (pH 5.5-6.7) after the immunodepletion of serum albumin and Ig. Sixty-three protein spots were detected with more than +/- 1.8-fold differences (p < 0.05 for three technical replicates) from a set of tissue samples in which three tumor and three nontumor samples were randomly selected from six breast cancer subjects click here and pooled separately.

Of these, 53 proteins were successfully

identified by MS. Among the proteins whose levels were increased, we identified three novel WD-repeat-motifbearing proteins that have been known to be involved in actin selleck screening library remodeling: Arp2/3 complex subunit 2 (p34-Arc), coronin-1A and WD-repeat protein 1 (Wdr1). Significantly increased amounts of p34-Arc and coronin-1A in breast cancer were also shown by Western blot analysis of matched tumor and nontumor tissue samples (N = 11, p <0.05), and were consistent with the mRNA levels retrieved from publicly available microarray databases. The siRNA knockdown of p34-Arc attenuated the invasion of SK-BR3 breast cancer cells into Matrigel. In contrast, the overexpression of coronin-1A increased this invasive activity. Taken together, the cellular levels of p34-Arc and coronin-1A were linked to cancer development and migration. The data obtained from the present study provides new insight into the management of breast cancer.”
“The visual front-end of reading is

most often associated with orthographic processing. The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex seems to be preferentially tuned for letter string PD0325901 and word processing. In contrast, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for pre-orthographic processing: the processing of character strings regardless of character type. While the superior parietal lobule has been shown to be involved in multiple letter processing, further data is necessary to extend these results to non-letter characters. The purpose of this study is to identify the neural correlates of pre-orthographic character string processing independently of character type. Fourteen skilled adult readers carried out multiple and single element visual categorization tasks with alphanumeric (AN) and non-alphanumeric (nAN) characters under fMRI. The role of parietal cortex in multiple element processing was further probed with a priori defined anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). Participants activated posterior parietal cortex more strongly for multiple than single element processing.

The AIV typing assays accurately typed all

The AIV typing assays accurately typed all this website 41 AIV strains and a limit of detection of 4-200 EID50/mL was obtained. Assay validation showed that the microarray assays were generally comparable to real-time RT-PCR. However, the AIV typing microarray assays detected more positive clinical samples than the AIV matrix real-time RT-PCR, and also provided information regarding the subtype. The AIV-NDV multiplex and AIV H typing microarray assays detected

mixed infections and could be useful for detection and typing of AIV and NDV. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Congopain, the major cysteine peptidase of Trypanosoma congolense is an attractive candidate buy KU55933 for an anti-disease vaccine and target for the design of specific inhibitors. A complicating factor for the inclusion of congopain in a vaccine is that multiple variants of congopain are present in the genome of the parasite. In order to determine whether the variant congopain-like genes code for peptidases with enzymatic activities different to those of congopain, two variants

were cloned and expressed. Two truncated catalytic domain variants were recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris. The two expressed catalytic domain variants differed slightly from one another in substrate preferences and also from that of C2 (the recombinant truncated form of congopain). Surprisingly, a variant with the catalytic triad Ser(25), His(159) and Asn(175) was shown to be active against classical cysteine peptidase substrates and inhibited by E-64, a class-specific cysteine protease inhibitor. Both catalytic domain clones SB202190 in vitro and C2 had pH optima of either 6.0 or 6.5 implying

that these congopain-like proteases are likely to be expressed and active in the bloodstream of the host animal. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Our aim was to investigate whether migraine adolescents with pain directed inside (imploding pain – IP) and outside (exploding pain – EP) the head may have different levels of cortical excitability underlying their migraineous syndrome. Ten migraine children referring prevalent EP (mean age 14.5 +/- 1.4 years, 3 girls, 7 boys), 10 patients with IP (mean age 14.1 +/- 2.2 years, 4 girls, 6 boys), and 13 control subjects (mean age 13 +/- 1.8 years, 6 males, 7 females) participated to the study. The recovery cycle of the somatosensory evoked potentials to electrical median nerve stimuli at interstimulus intervals of 5, 20, and 40 ms was measured. Anger expression, anxiety, and somatic concerns were investigated in migraine patients. Overall, SEP recovery cycle was shorter in migraineurs than in healthy controls. The recovery cycle of the frontal N30 SEP component was significantly shorter in IP than in EP patients. While among the EP patients those with faster N30 recovery cycle had higher Trait-Anger score, the opposite was found among the IP patients.

The labeling efficiency of Ga-68-NOTA-MSA was greater than 99% at

The labeling efficiency of Ga-68-NOTA-MSA was greater than 99% at room temperature, and its stability

was greater than 99% at 4 h. Biodistribution and micro-PET studies of Ga-68-NOTA-MSA showed high liver and spleen uptakes after intravenous injection. Ga-68-NOTA-MSA injected into a footpad rapidly migrated to the lymph node.

Conclusions: Ga-68-NOTA-MSA was successfully developed as JQ1 a novel SLN imaging agent for PET. NOTA-MSA is easily labeled at high efficiency,,and subcutaneously administered Ga-68-NOTA-MSA was found to migrate rapidly to the lymph node. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We investigate a definition of biological information that connects population genetics with the tools of information theory by focusing on

the distribution of genotypes found in a population. Previous research has treated loci as non-interacting by making specific approximations in the calculation of information-theoretic quantities. We expand earlier mathematical forms to include epistasis, or interactions between mutations at all pairs of loci. Application of our improved measure of biological information to evolution on two-locus, two-allele fitness landscapes demonstrates that mutual information between loci reflects epistatic interaction of mutations. Finally, we consider four-locus, two-allele fitness landscapes with modular structure. As modular interactions are inherently epistatic, we demonstrate that our refined approximation provides insight into the underlying structure of these non-trivial fitness landscapes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Two variants of Annexin A5 (Cys2-AnxA5 and Cys 165-AnxA5) selleck inhibitor were labelled with Gallium-68 in order to evaluate their biological properties.

Procedures: Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics

of the radiotracers were studied with mu PET in healthy mice and in a mouse model of hepatic apoptosis. mu PET imaging after IV injection of the tracers in combination with mu MRI was performed in Daudi tumor bearing mice before and after treatment with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Results: The biodistribution data indicated a fast urinary clearance with only minor hepatobilliary clearance, although a high retention in the kidneys was observed. Animals treated with anti-Fas most showed a 3 to 8 times higher liver uptake as compared to healthy animals. Tumor uptake of Ga-68-Cys2-AnxA5 and Ga-68-Cys165-AnxA5 was low but significantly increased after therapy.

Conclusion: Both Ga-68-Cys2-AnxA5 and Ga-65-Cys165-AnxA5 show a clear binding to apoptotic cells and are promising tracers for rapid evaluation of cancer therapy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“I developed a genetic-physiological model to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating annual and perennial life histories, and theoretically explored local adaptation caused by environment-specific selection.

Nanoproteomics will provide the platform for the discovery of nex

Nanoproteomics will provide the platform for the discovery of next generation biomarkers. The field of molecular diagnostics

will then come of age.”
“Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Selleckchem CHIR 99021 are colossal membrane protein complexes that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscle myocytes and neurons, in addition to many non-excitable cells. They comprise high-conductance ion channels that mediate the massive release of Ca2+ ions from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm. This is the trigger for contraction during each muscle excitation-contraction coupling cycle. Individual RyRs are believed to network with other RyRs indirectly, through diffusion of released Ca2+ click here ions, namely the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release phenomenon. However, RyRs can intrinsically organize into a regular array resembling a distinctive checkerboard pattern, with each square-shaped receptor appearing to abut four neighbours at each corner. In this opinion article, we describe recent data showing structural interactions between RyR oligomers in reconstituted arrays, and we suggest that this provides strong evidence for direct inter-RyR communication through a novel, allosteric regulatory mechanism.”
“The recent application of neuroimaging techniques in the field of human cognitive

development is providing the practical basis for researchers to face speculative queries that had been impossible to address before enabling them to respectively describe “”how the brain is”" and “”how the brain works”" at birth

or even before. These techniques encompass both classic and well-known tools (such as EEG and ERPs) as well as more recently developed methods (i.e., MEG, f-NIRS, MRI and f-MRI) which only in the last decade have been applied in infants to shed light on the early interaction between the “”nature”" and the “”nurture,”" or in other words, between genetics and environment. The purpose of the present work is to review some of the literature regarding neurocognitive development in the light of the achievements reached thanks to recent technical and methodological advancements. In particular, it focuses on the early period of life, using preterm birth as a case that allows the study of the subtle interaction between genetically pre-programmed cortical development and early sensorial experience influence. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Quantitative proteomics approaches using stable isotopes are well-known and used in many labs nowadays. More recently, high resolution quantitative approaches are reported that rely on LC-MS quantitation of peptide concentrations by comparing peak intensities between multiple runs obtained by continuous detection in MS mode. Characteristic of these comparative LC-MS procedures is that they do not rely on the use of stable isotopes; therefore the procedure is often referred to as label-free LC-MS.

There was an increase in the mRNA of seven genes in the neocortex

There was an increase in the mRNA of seven genes in the neocortex of mice I h after treatment with FG7142. In addition, there was an increase in the mRNAs of five of the seven genes (Fos, Cyr61, Btg2, Adamts1, and Gem) in the neocortex of mice exposed to the stress for 1 h.

The up-regulation of these five genes Selleck Anlotinib by both FG7142 and immobilization stress indicates that these genes may be involved in the stress-responsive system. Dysfunctions of the system may be associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. (C) 2008 Elsevier

Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Recent evidence suggests that rats require an intact hippocampus in order to recognize familiar objects when they encounter them again in a different context. The two experiments reported here further examined how changes in context affect rats’ performance on the novel-object preference (NOP) test of object-recognition memory, and how those effects interact with the effects of HPC damage.

Rats with HPC lesions and control rats received NOP testing in either the same context in which they had previously encountered sample objects, or in a different but equally familiar context. In Experiment 1, the two contexts had very few MLN0128 molecular weight overlapping cues within or outside the apparatus; thus, the differences between them were global. Consistent with previous results, control rats showed a novel-object preference in both the unchanged and (globally) changed contexts, whereas rats with HPC lesions displayed a preference only in the unchanged context. In Experiment 2, the context shift included only local features proximal to the test objects. The main results were the reverse of Experiment 1-rats with HPC lesions displayed a novel-object preference in both the unchanged and (locally) changed contexts, whereas control rats displayed a preference only in the unchanged context. The findings are consistent with the view that HPC damage does not cause a general inability to recognize objects,

nor an inability to encode or store a representation of the context in which the objects are encountered. They suggest instead that HPC damage impairs Batimastat the ability to remember specific locations of familiar objects within a particular context.”
“Which brain sites represent the final form of motor commands that encode temporal patterns of muscle activities? Here, we show the possible brain sites which have activity equivalent to the motor commands with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that short-temporal patterns of movements or stimuli are reflected in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses and we searched for regions representing the response. Participants performed two temporal patterns of tapping and/or listened to the same patterns of auditory stimuli in a 3T fMRI.

Increased activity of the HPA axis and GC exposure has been sugge

Increased activity of the HPA axis and GC exposure has been suggested to facilitate the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nonetheless, different stressors can produce distinct effects on food intake and may support different directions of food learning e.g. avoidance or acceptance. This study examined whether interoceptive (LiCl) and exendin-4) and restraint stress (RS) support similar or distinct food learning. Female rats were exposed to different stressors after their consumption of a palatable food (butter icing). After four palatable food-stress pairings, distinct intakes of the butter icing were observed in rats treated with different stressors. Rats that received

butter icing Tucidinostat followed by intraperitoneal injections of LiCl (42.3 mg/kg) and exendin-4 (10 mu g/kg) completely avoided the palatable food with subsequent presentations. In contrast, rats experiencing RS paired with the palatable food increased their consumption of butter icing across trials and did so to a greater degree than rats receiving

saline injections. These data indicate that interoceptive and psychosocial stressors support conditioned food avoidance and acceptance, respectively. Examination of c-Fos immunoreactivity revealed distinct neural activation by interoceptive and psychosocial stressors that could provide the neural basis underlying opposite direction of food acceptance selleck compound learning. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of IBRO.”
“In the present study, bacterial growth in a rich media is analysed in a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) framework. It is demonstrated that the SDE formulation and smoothened

state estimates provide a systematic framework for data driven model improvements, using random walk hidden states. Bacterial growth is limited by the available substrate and the inclusion selleck products of diffusion must obey this natural restriction. By inclusion of a modified logistic diffusion term it is possible to introduce a diffusion term flexible enough to capture both the growth phase and the stationary phase, while concentration is restricted to the natural state space (substrate and bacteria non-negative). The case considered is the growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus in a rich media. It is found that a hidden state is necessary to capture the lag phase of growth, and that a flexible logistic diffusion term is needed to capture the random behaviour of the growth model. Further, it is concluded that the Monod effect is not needed to capture the dynamics of bacterial growth in the data presented. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Leukocytosis (raised concentration of white cells in the blood) is commonly associated with infection or inflammation, but can occur in a wide variety of other conditions. Leukocytosis has also been linked with increased mortality and morbidity in a number of studies.