Conclusion: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy was fo

Conclusion: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy was found to be a safe and feasible surgical treatment option for POP patients who desire uterine preservation.”
“Purpose of review

Pediatricians are increasingly confronted with the mental health needs of children. Given Ulixertinib the unanticipated role, well-described diagnostic guidelines and treatment protocols are essential: but often lacking. Identification of bipolar disorder in children, a condition which lacks diagnostic criteria consensus, presents a particular

challenge. Despite this, it is generally regarded as a condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Extended delays to treatment, typical for the condition, contribute to significantly reduced adult functionality.

Recent findings

Most children with bipolar disorder exhibit a subsyndromal course of illness. This has prompted many investigative groups to explore whether such a presentation is developmental

or unique. Despite the ongoing debate, there has been a rapid increase in the rate of diagnoses. Concurrently, breakthroughs LY2157299 mouse in neurology, neuroimaging, and genetics have called into question the existing conceptually based psychiatric constructs altogether. New research approaches which reflect these advances are more likely to lead to evidence-based diagnosis and treatment. Such an example is a novel phenotype called Fear of Harm (FOH). A new research perspective resulted in the unification of a broad range of symptoms from bipolar disorder as well as many of the co-occurring disorders. When considered selleck as a whole, the syndrome maps on to a known neural pathway and has led investigators to a putative biomarker.


If given the right information and tools, pediatricians are uniquely positioned

to interrupt the decline caused by mental illnesses. Importantly, the newly defined FOH syndrome includes clinical symptoms which are frequently first brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although these symptoms are not exclusive to the mood disorder, they could alert pediatricians to the need for further evaluation.”
“Although various single-concentration measurements of the pharmaceutical diclofenac are available in literature, detailed information on the mass flux in the aquatic environment is often missing. Therefore, the overall load of diclofenac was obtained by recording each concentration in nine effluents of sewage treatment plants (STP) and at three river sites located in the area of the river Main (Germany) over a time period of six weeks.

In STP effluents, concentrations of up to 2200 ng/L were obtained. In combination with flow rates and connected population an average specific load per capita and day of 0.28 mg (+/-0.11 mg) diclofenac reaches the receiving water course.

All nontreated mice died within 30 days of infection Aurothiomal

All nontreated mice died within 30 days of infection. Aurothiomalate-treatment delayed

the lethal course of malaria leading to survival of more than 50% of the mice 30 days after infection.

Conclusions: Sodium aurothiomalate influences the survival of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice, an effect only partially explained by stimulation of eryptosis.”
“Depression is the most common psychological morbidity in epilepsy, yet this comorbidity is not well understood. Possible explanations for this comorbidity include recurrence of premorbid depression, increased risk for severe epilepsy due to a history of depression, shared risk factors for depression and epilepsy, AED-induced depression in vulnerable individuals, and coping styles in the face of stressors linked to epilepsy. Preexisting vulnerability to depression may

contribute to each of these GSK126 Epigenetics inhibitor explanations. Vulnerability may arise from the influence of common risk factors, family history of depression, a history of depression before initiation of relevant AEDs, or coping styles and BMS-777607 may reflect allostatic load. These exposures may precede the occurrence of epilepsy or follow the onset of epilepsy, in both cases increasing the risk for depression in prevalent epilepsy. Their careful evaluation is vital to identifying people at greatest risk for depression in epilepsy and for informing interventions to prevent the occurrence of this disabling epilepsy comorbidity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BackgroundThe routine use of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBD) for endotracheal intubation in children is the subject of much controversy. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) can reveal information about the functional state of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).

AimThe purpose of this study was to determine if HRV elucidates differences in the sympathovagal balance of children undergoing

elective endo-tracheal intubation with and without neuromuscular blockade (NMB).

MethodsIn this prospective study, 38 children (2-6years) scheduled for adenotonsillectomy were randomized into two groups to receive fentanyl 2gkg(-1) and propofol 4mgkg(-1), with either mivacurium 0.25mgkg(-1) (NMB group) or saline solution (NoNMB group) for Danusertib purchase anesthesia induction. The same experienced, blinded anesthesiologist performed endotracheal intubation. Heart rate variability, RR intervals, ECG as well as an electroencephalogram were recorded with HRV and BIS XP monitors, respectively. Heart rate variability was analyzed in the frequency domain.

ResultsThere was no significant difference in HRV changes immediately after mivacurium administration compared with an administration of saline. The groups were comparable for the bispectral index value (NMB 35 [33-41] vs NoNMB 34 [32-42]) during endotracheal intubation.

The synergistic effectivities

The synergistic effectivities GSK2879552 calculated on the basis of increases in the LOI values were 1.4 for VMT, 1.3 for MMT, and 1.6 for EVMT. Cone calorimetry also revealed the existence of a synergistic effect. EVMT had the best performance for lowering the peak values of the heat release rate and smoke production rate. The thermogravimetric analysis results show that EVMT had the best performance for increasing the char residue of FRPP higher than 650 degrees C compared with VMT and MMT. The high content of iron and the small particle size of EVMT may have been responsible for its high synergistic effect at a low filling level. No remarkable variations of the

diffraction peaks were observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns of the original clay and the clay in FRPP. All of the formulations, with or without clay, exhibited small variations in the mechanical properties. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 1225-1233, 2011″
“Purpose: To retrospectively AZD1480 determine whether blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can aid prediction of postoperative memory changes in epileptic patients after temporal lobe surgery.

Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Data were analyzed from 25 patients (12

women, 13 men; age range, 19-52 years) with refractory epilepsy in whom temporal lobe surgery was performed after they underwent preoperative functional MR imaging, the Wada

test, and neuropsychological testing. The functional MR imaging protocol included three different memory tasks (24-hour delayed recognition, encoding, and immediate recognition). Individual activations were measured in medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions of both hemispheres. The prognostic accuracy of functional MR imaging for prediction of postoperative memory changes was learn more compared with the accuracy of the Wada test and preoperative neuropsychological testing by using a backward multiple regression analysis.

Results: An equation that was based on left functional MR imaging MTL activation during delayed recognition, side of the epileptic focus, and preoperative global verbal memory score was used to correctly predict worsening of verbal memory in 90% of patients. The right functional MR imaging MTL activation did not substantially correlate with the nonverbal memory outcome, which was only predicted by using the preoperative nonverbal global score. Wada test data were not good predictors of changes in either verbal or nonverbal memory.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that functional MR imaging activation during a delayed-recognition task is a better predictor of individual postoperative verbal memory outcome than is the Wada test. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“We investigated the S-doping-driven phase transition from antiferromagnetic to superconducting in FeTe1-xSx single crystals.

For the composites these properties varied with WF content An in

For the composites these properties varied with WF content. An increase in wax content resulted to a decrease in water uptake by the composites, probably because the wax covered the WF particles and penetrated the pores in these

particles. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1541-1551, 2010″
“The solar-energy absorption material beta-In(2)S(3) was characterized using temperature-dependent photoconductivity (PC) measurements in the temperature range between 30 and 340 K in this study, and thermoreflectance (TR) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out to identify near-band-edge transitions in the beta-In(2)S(3) tetragonal crystal. The experimental analyses of PL, PC, and TR confirmed that beta-In(2)S(3) is a direct semiconductor with a band gap of 2.073 eV at 30 K and 1.935 eV at 300 K. The PL and PC spectra manifest some defect-related features in the beta-In(2)S(3) single crystal. Vorinostat nmr Two defect emissions and two band-edge luminescences were simultaneously detected in the PL spectrum at 30 K, and the Caspase-3 Inhibitor temperature-dependent PC spectra of beta-In(2)S(3) from 160 to 300 K reveal an additional defectlike or band-to-band feature with an energy located above the conduction band edge (E(C)). The temperature dependences

of the PC transition features in the beta-In(2)S(3) defect crystal were analyzed. The origin and mechanism of all defect states and band-edge transitions in the beta-In(2)S(3) single crystal are evaluated and discussed. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3478719]“
“The adjuvant of organic bentonite (OBT), zinc oxide (ZnO), zeolite 4A (4A), aluminum phosphinate (AlPi), terephthaloyl-biscaprolactam (TBC), 2,2′-bis(2-oxazoline) (BOZ), and manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) on flame retardant enhancement of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS)/polyamide 6 (PA6)/styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA)/ammonium polyphosphate (APP) blends were investigated by using the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the UL-94 (vertical flame) test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),

and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The LOI datas and vertical flame tests showed that the synergistic flame retardant effect of OBT, ZnO, 4A, AlPi, BOZ, and MnO(2) on the ABS/PA6/SMA/APP blend was good, and the LOI value of ABS/PA6/SMA/APP/MnO(2) click here (55/15/5/25/2) system was 33% and class V-0 of UL-94 test was passed. The TGA data demonstrated that the incorporation of adjuvant was known to improve the fire properties essentially accompanied by only minor changes in thermal decomposition. The strong influence of oxygen on the thermal degradation of the ABS/PA6/SMA/APP system, and the oxygen could modify the carbonaceous structure. The microstructures observed by SEM indicated that the adjuvant can promote formation of compact intumescent inorganic-carbonaceous char layers in ABS/PA6/SMA/APP blends. Furthermore, the effects of adjuvant on the mechanical properties of ABS/PA6/SMA/APP blends were also investigated.

Fitting of mineralization data to a sigmoidal Gompertz function r

Fitting of mineralization data to a sigmoidal Gompertz function revealed a lower rate of increase in mineralization in osteoarthritic tissue. Analysis of viscoelastic mechanical properties revealed increased compliance in osteoarthritic tissue.

Conclusions: These data suggest that significant changes occur at meniscal enthesis sites with the onset of OA. Mechanical and structural changes in meniscal entheses may contribute to meniscal extrusion, which has been shown to increase the progression of OA. (C) 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by alachlor Salubrinal chemical structure and dichlorvos,

two pesticides broadly used, were studied on RTG-2 fish cell line. As measure of cytotoxicity, neutral red assay was used to determine the cellular viability. Toxicity ranking based on IC50 values found that alachlor was more cytotoxic than dichlorvos. DNA damage has been evaluated on RTG-2 cultures by means of an in vitro Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor assay based on the ability of PicoGreen (R) fluorochrome to interact preferentially with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), and the results indicated that alachlor induced DNA strand breaks at concentrations

above 1.52 mu g/mL, equivalent to 1/50-EC50(48), whereas exposures to dichlorvos induced DNA damage only at the maximal concentrations tested 25 mu g/mL (1/10-EC50(48)). These results confirm the suitability of this method for the screening of genotoxic effects of this type of aquatic pollutants, and we suggest their use in hazard assessment for environmental risk procedures. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.”
“Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-) and Wnt-signalling play crucial roles in cartilage homeostasis. Our objective was to investigate whether activation of the BMP-pathway or stimulation of Wnt-signalling cascades effectively enhances cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation

and functional biomechanical parameters of chondrocyte-seeded tissue engineering (TE)-constructs.

Design: Articular chondrocytes were cultured in collagen-type-I/III-matrices over 6 weeks to create a biomechanical standard curve. Effects of stimulation with 100 ng/mL BMP-4/-7 heterodimer or 10 mM lithium chloride (LiC1) on buy HM781-36B ECM-deposition was quantified and characterized histologically. Biomechanical parameters were determined by the Very Low Rubber Hardness (VLRH) method and under confined compression stress relaxation.

Results: BMP-4/-7 treatment resulted in stronger collagen type-II staining and significantly enhanced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition (3.2-fold; *P < 0.01) correlating with improved hardness (similar to 1.7fold; *P = 0.001) reaching 83% of native cartilage values after 28 days, a value not reached before 9 weeks without stimulation. LiCl treatment enhanced VLRH slightly, but significantly (similar to 1.3-fold; *P = 0.


Conclusion: In 72 5% of vestibular neuritis cases


Conclusion: In 72.5% of vestibular neuritis cases, head shaking nystagmus was converted to biphasic during the subacute period. The larger the initial canal paresis was present, the more frequent the biphasic conversion of head shaking nystagmus occurred. However,

Meniere’s disease and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo did not have specific patterns of head shaking nystagmus.”
“A 46-year old male patient was admitted with a history of an extremely painful right upper arm, associated with unilateral clubbing. Duplex scanning and magnetic resonance imaging were suggestive of a pseudo-aneurysm of the brachial artery. Digital angiography showed an irregular brachial artery, associated with a small pseudo-aneurysm. Selleck Duvelisib The brachial artery was partially resected and reconstructed with a venous interposition CBL0137 graft. Pathological examination provided the final diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia. Although more encountered in women, this case report describes the occurrence of fibromuscular dysplasia in an unusual location in a male patient with a long-term follow-up.”
“Pharyngoesophageal diverticulum after anterior cervical spine surgery is a rarely reported but potentially life-threatening

complication. A case report of pharyngoesophageal diverticulum 7 years after anterior cervical spine surgery is presented. The patient suffered from dysphagia, odynophagia, recurrent

fever, weight loss, and also an impressive bulging in the neck with swallowing. After careful examination and preparation, he underwent revision surgery via an open procedure, had the implants removed, pouch excised, and esophagus reconstructed reinforced by a sternohyoid muscle flap as well as an omohyoid muscle flap. The post-operative period was uneventful, and he experienced a satisfactory NVP-BSK805 price recovery. At last follow up, 2.5 years post surgery, the patient remained symptom free. Upon review of the literature, only six such previous reports with seven cases were found. Diagnostic tools, possible mechanism, correlative factors and treatment are discussed. This patient was fortunate that although his symptoms developed long after the initial anterior cervical operation and the pouch grew impressively large almost perforating, he still recovered well. It again proves the necessity of long-term X-ray follow up, and also reminds the surgeons to be alert of the possibility of esophageal injury even when the esophageal symptoms are mild and occur long after the initial operation.”
“Oronasal fistula is defined as an abnormal duct, connecting the nasal with the oral cavity. We present an extremely rare case of oronasal fistula associated with rhinolithiasis. The particular case presents the unique feature of a palatal defect, being large enough to enable the in toto removal of the rhinolith.

The measured delamination toughness of the various tie-layers was

The measured delamination toughness of the various tie-layers was quantitatively correlated to the length of the damage zone that formed at the crack tip. In addition, the effect of the tie-layer thickness on the multilayer tensile properties was correlated with the delamination behavior. The fracture strain of the multi-layers decreased with decreasing tie-layer thickness. An examination of the prefracture damage mechanism of the stretched multilayers

revealed a good correlation with the delamination toughness of the tie-layers. In thick tie-layers (>2 mu m), the delamination toughness was great enough to prevent the delamination of the multilayers when Emricasan nmr they were stretched. In thin tie-layers (<2 mu m), the delamination toughness of all the tie-layers was low; consequently, delamination led to premature fracture in the stretched multilayers. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121:1999-2012, 2011″
“DNA in eukaryotes is packaged into a chromatin complex, the most basic element of which is the nucleosome. The precise positioning of the nucleosome

cores allows for selective access BEZ235 concentration to the DNA, and the mechanisms that control this positioning are important pieces of the gene expression puzzle. We describe a large-scale nucleosome pattern that jointly characterizes the nucleosome core and the adjacent linkers and is predominantly characterized by long-range oscillations in the mono, di- and tri-nucleotide content of the DNA sequence, and we show that this pattern can be used to predict nucleosome positions in both Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae more accurately than previously published methods. Surprisingly, in both H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, the most informative individual features are the mono-nucleotide patterns, although the inclusion of di- and tri-nucleotide features Blebbistatin clinical trial results in improved performance. Our approach combines a much longer pattern than has been previously used to predict nucleosome positioning from sequence-301 base pairs, centered at the position to be scored-with a novel discriminative

classification approach that selectively weights the contributions from each of the input features. The resulting scores are relatively insensitive to local AT-content and can be used to accurately discriminate putative dyad positions from adjacent linker regions without requiring an additional dynamic programming step and without the attendant edge effects and assumptions about linker length modeling and overall nucleosome density. Our approach produces the best dyad-linker classification results published to date in H. sapiens, and outperforms two recently published models on a large set of S. cerevisiae nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that in both genomes, a comparable and relatively small fraction of nucleosomes are well-positioned and that these positions are predictable based on sequence alone.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the associat

Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the association of whole-grain intake (g/d) and risk see more of incident hypertension in a large prospective cohort of men.

Design: The Health Professionals Follow-Up Study is a prospective cohort consisting of 51,529 male health professionals ranging in age from 40 to 75 y at enrollment in 1986. Baseline and updated measurement of whole-grain intake as well as important covariates were measured, and 31,684 participants without known hypertension, cancer, stroke, or coronary

heart disease were followed prospectively for 18 y through 2004 for onset of hypertension.

Results: A total of 9227 cases of incident hypertension were reported over the 18 y of follow-up. In multivariate-adjusted BVD-523 ic50 analyses, whole-grain intake was inversely associated with risk of hypertension, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87) in the highest compared with the lowest quintile (P for trend < 0.0001).

In the multivariate model, total bran was inversely associated with hypertension, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.92) in the highest compared with the lowest quintile (P for trend: 0.002).

Conclusions: In summary, we found an independent inverse association between intake of whole grains and incident hypertension in men. Bran may play an important role in this association. These findings have implications for future dietary guidelines and prevention of hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:493-8.”
“This paper deals with aging phenomena in polymers under electric stress. In particular, we focus our efforts on the development of a novel theoretical S63845 method accounting for the discharge process partial discharge) in well known defects present in polymers, which are essentially tiny air gaps embedded in a polymeric matrix. Such defects are believed to act as trigger points for the partial discharges and their induced aging process.

The model accounts for the amplitude as well as the energy distribution of the electrons during their motion, particularly at the time in which they impact on the polymer surface. The knowledge of the number of generated electrons and of their energy distributions is fundamental to evaluate the amount of damage caused by an avalanche on the polymer-void interface and get novel insights of the basic phenomena underlying the relevant aging processes. The calculation of such quantities would require generally the combined solution of the Boltzmann equation in the energy and space/time domains. The proposed method simplifies the problem, taking into account only the main phenomena involved in the process and provides a partial discharge (PD) model virtually free of adjustable parameters.

Fischer’s exact test (two-tailed), student’s t test and Pearson’s

Fischer’s exact test (two-tailed), student’s t test and Pearson’s chi-square test, odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were used to compare the two groups statistically.

There CBL0137 inhibitor were 91 unbooked births in the 18 month study period. Unbooked mothers were younger (26.0 +/- A 6.68 vs. 29.2 +/- A 6.10 years, p < 0.0001), more likely to be unemployed, unmarried and non-English speaking compared to matched booked mothers (all p < 0.01). The rate of Caesarean sections ([OR] = 0.85, 95% [CI] = 0.39-1.88), p > 0.05), birth asphyxia, Apgar scores < 7 at 1 min ([OR] = 1.10, 95% [CI] = 0.52-2.35, p = 0.80) and intrauterine foetal death (stillbirth)

([OR] = 2.03, 95% [CI] = 0.28-14.60, p = 0.60) were comparable between the two groups. However,

unbooked mothers were five times more likely to have preterm delivery ([OR] = 6.44, 95% [CI] = 2.24-18.50, p < 0.0002); three times more likely to have low birth weight babies (< 2,500 g) ([OR] = 2.87, 95% [CI] = 1.21-6.82, p < 0.02) and twice as likely to have postpartum haemorrhage ([OR] = 1.85, 95% [CI] = 0.69-4.98, p = 0.3).

Unbooked women were more at risk of adverse foetal and maternal outcomes than booked women, even within a population of young, relatively healthy immigrant women.”
“Background: To evaluate the characteristics VX-809 cell line of the co-authorship and its network within the Korean Pathologists’ Society. Methods: In the KoreaMed database, 11,420 articles and 72,478 authors from 1991 to 2010 were searched. The patterns of co-authorship of the authors and institutions

were analyzed to build a network matrix. The network centrality indices were measured with UCINET 6.0 and sociogram, and were drawn with Selleckchem AR-13324 Netdraw 5.0. KeyPlayer 1.44 was used for key player analysis. Results: The number of articles that pathologist participated in increased; however, the number of articles that the pathologists are the first author did not increase. The centrality degrees from 1991 to 2010 were 4.16% and 0.3% for the institutions and authors network, respectively. From 1991 to 2000, Seoul National University had the highest degree of centrality and was a key player. However, from 2001 to 2010, Ulsan replaced the position. For the authors, Chi, Je Geun was highest centrality author and key player during the 1991 to 2000 time period. From 2001 to 2010, Yoo, Jinyoung had the highest degree of centrality and Kim, Na Rae was a key player. Overall, most of the centrality indices were occupied by only a few institutions and authors. Conclusions: The network among the pathologist society is a typical small world society.”
“Information about fetal and maternal outcome in pregnant women with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is rare and in part contradictory.

Physical properties including saturation magnetization, Curie tem

Physical properties including saturation magnetization, Curie temperature (T-C), magnetoresistance and metal-insulator

transition temperature (T-MI), all show systematic trends as the deposition frequency varies. This study reveals that the domain/GBs tunability achieved in nanocomposite thin films can affect the lattice strain and further tune their ferromagnetic properties. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3552594]“
“The electron-beam preirradiation and reactive extrusion technologies were used to prepare maleic anhydride (MAH)/vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS)-co-grafting polypropylene (PP) as a high-performance compatibilizer for wood-flour/PP composites. The grafting content, chemical structure, and crystallization behavior of the compatibilizers were characterized through

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and an VX-689 mouse extraction method. The effects of the compatibilizers on the mechanical properties, water absorption, morphological structure, and torque rheological behavior of the composites were investigated comparatively. The experimental results demonstrate that MAH/VTMS-g-PP markedly enhanced the mechanical properties of the composites. Compared with MAH-g-PP and VTMS-g-PP, MAH/VTMS-g-PP clearly showed synergistic effects on the increasing mechanical properties, water absorption, and compatibility of the composites. Scanning electron microscopy further confirmed that the adhesion and dispersion of wood flours in the composites were effectively improved by MAH/VTMS-g-PP. These results were also proven by the best Galardin nmr water resistance of the wood-flour/PP composites with MAH/VTMS-g-PP. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 402-409, 2011″
“Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the surface porosity of hand-mixed, syringe-mixed and encapsulated set endodontic sealers using image


Study design. Eight different AZD2014 in vivo root canal sealers (AD Seal/Meta Biomed; AH Plus/Dentsply; MM Seal/Micromega; AH Plus Jet/Dentsply; EndoREZ/Ultradent; Epiphany/Pentron; GuttaFlow/Coltene; RealSeal/Sybron Endo) were prepared in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations and dispensed into plastic rings (n = 10/group). Following set of the specimens, scanning electron photomicrographs of the sealer surfaces were taken at standard magnification. The area fraction and the minimum-maximum diameters of surface pores were calculated on the micrographs using ImageJ open-source image analysis software. Statistical comparisons were made between the sealers with respect to the area fractions and number of pores (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < .05).

Results. The endodontic sealers differed significantly in both the percentage of area fraction and pore count (P < .001). The surface porosity of the methacrylate-based sealers Epiphany and RealSeal were significantly lower than those of resin-and silicone-based sealers.