Conclusion Significant correlations were found between the decre

Conclusion. Significant correlations were found between the decrease ratio for the nerve root blood flow and the deterioration ratio for the amplitude of the CMAPs. The present results demonstrate that temporary ischemic changes in the nerve root cause transient conduction disturbances.”

aim was to study the impact of subclinical inflammation on the development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) on a 1-year protocol biopsy in patients on rapid steroid withdrawal (RSW). A total of 256 patients were classified based on protocol biopsy findings at months 1 or 4. Group 1 is 172 patients with no inflammation, group 2 is 50 patients with subclinical inflammation (SCI), group 3 is 19 patients with subclinical acute rejection (SAR) and group 4 is 15 patients with clinical SRT1720 Epigenetics inhibitor acute rejection (CAR). On the 1-year biopsy, more patients in group 2 (SCI) (34%, p = 0.004) and group 3 (SAR) (53%, p = 0.0002), had an IF/TA score > 2 compared to group 1 (control) (15%). IF/TA was not increased in group 4 (CAR) (20%). The percent with IF/TA score > 2 and interstitial inflammation (Banff i score > 0) was higher in group 2 (16%, p = 0.004) and group 3 (37%, p < 0.0001) compared to group 1 (3%). In a multivariate analysis, patients in groups 2 or 3 had a higher risk of IF/TA score >

2 on the 1-year biopsy (OR 6.62, 95% CI 2.68-16.3). We conclude that SCI and SAR increase the risk of developing IF/TA in patient on RSW.”
“Three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-producing halotolerant bacteria were isolated from West Coast soil of Yellow Sea, Incheon, South Korea and evaluated for their efficiency LCL161 mw in improving red pepper plant growth under salt stress. The strains RS16, RS656 and RS111 were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Brevibacterium iodinum, Bacillus licheniformis and Zhihengliuela alba, respectively. Two hour exposure of 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl stress on 8 day old red pepper seedlings caused 44, 64 and 74% increase ethylene

production, while at 150 mM NaCl stress, inoculation of B. licheniformis RS656, Z. alba RS111, and Br. iodinum RS16 reduces ethylene production by 44, 53 and 57%, respectively. Similarly, 3 week old red pepper plants were subjected to salt stress for two weeks and approximately similar to 50% reduction in growth recorded at 150 mM NaCl stress compared to negative control whereas bacteria inoculation significantly increase the growth compared to positive control. Salt stress also caused 1.3-fold reduction in the root/shoot dry weight ratio compared to the absence of salt while bacteria inoculation retained the biomass allocation similar to control plants. The salt tolerance index (ratio of biomass of salt stressed to non-stressed plant) was also significantly increased in inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated.

A fluid collection around the RF

ablation area was seen i

A fluid collection around the RF

ablation area was seen in eight of the 10 noncooled kidneys on day 7 CT scans compared with two of the 10 cooled kidneys; the difference was statistically significant (P = .035). Ex vivo retrograde pyelography depicted leakage of contrast material in only the noncooled group. The mean histologic damage score was lower in the cooled group than in the noncooled group.

Conclusion: RF ablation after placement of an antegrade cooling system in pig kidneys was feasible. Antegrade cold dextrose infusion of the urinary tract during RF ablation is effective in protecting the renal collecting system without compromising the RF ablation effect.”
“Oxides RNiO3 (R – rare-earth, R not equal La) exhibit a metal-insulator learn more (MI) transition at a temperature T-MI and an antiferromagnetic (AF) transition at T-N. Specific heat (C-P) and anelastic spectroscopy measurements were performed in samples of Nd1-xEuxNiO3, 0 <= x <= 0.35. For x – 0, a peak in C-P is observed upon cooling and warming at essentially the same temperature T-MI – T-N similar to 195 K, although the

cooling peak is much smaller. For x >= 0.25, differences between the cooling and warming curves are negligible, and two well defined peaks are clearly observed: one at lower temperatures that define T-N, and the other one at T-MI. An external magnetic field of 9 T had no significant effect on these results. The elastic compliance (s) and AR-13324 the reciprocal of the mechanical quality factor (Q(-1)) of NdNiO3, measured SB273005 upon warming, showed a very sharp peak at essentially the same temperature obtained from C-P, and no peak is observed upon cooling. The elastic modulus

hardens below T-MI much more sharply upon warming, while the cooling and warming curves are reproducible above T-MI. Conversely, for the sample with x – 0.35, s and Q(-1) curves are very similar upon warming and cooling. The results presented here give credence to the proposition that the MI phase transition changes from first to second order with increasing Eu doping. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3549615]“
“Nonneoplastic mucocutaneous lesions are frequent in organ transplant recipients. Many of them are caused by a direct toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs, in particular glucocorticoids and cyclosporine. The effects of these agents are dose-and time-dependent. Glucocorticoids can cause acne, Cushingoid appearance, irregular purpuric areas, friable skin, and wide and violaceous stripes. Cyclosporine can cause hypertrichosis, pilosebaceous lesions, and gum hypertrophy. Patients with esthetic changes may show poor adherence to treatment with these immunosuppressive agents that may lead to progressive graft dysfunction.

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 122: 1489-1499,

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 1489-1499, 2011″
“To determine the success rate of transobturator adjustable tape (TOA, Agency for Medical Innovations, A.M.I., Austria) in stress urinary incontinent patients with maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) a parts per thousand currency sign20 cm H(2)O compared to those with MUCP >

20 cm H(2)O.

In this retrospective study, all female patients with a diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence underwent TOA, from September 2005 to August 2007. All patients had preoperative multichannel urodynamic tests (cystometry, urethral profile and uroflowmetry). During September 2008, patients were contacted by telephone and the validated short forms of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) questionnaire and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire

(IIQ-7) were administered.

The Screening Library cell assay chart review identified 146 patients (125 with MUCP > 20 cm H(2)O and 21 with MUCP a parts click here per thousand currency sign20 cm H(2)O) who had undergone TOA and who met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 121 patients (82.9%) were contacted by telephone. Results showed a very good quality of life (score 0-7 in the IIQ-7) in 95.9% of patients. Only two (1.6%) patients had persistent significant urine leakage related to physical activity. In the MUCP a parts per thousand currency sign20 cm H(2)O group, 90% of patients could be considered as being very satisfied, with a very good quality of life.

With the TOA procedure, the obturator route could be used to treat patients with urinary incontinence and also with low MUCP.”
“Carbon and Sn co-doping transforms Ge into Ge-rich C(x)Sn(y)Ge(1-x-y) alloy. Self-assembling of 1C4Sn and 4C10Sn clusters decreases the strain energy. These cluster VX-680 nmr formation processes are competing. The self-assembling conditions of 1C4Sn and 4C10Sn clusters are represented from 0 degrees C to 800 degrees C and at 5 x 10(-5) <= x <= 0.015 and 1 x 10(-4) <= y <= 0.015. The conditions demonstrate

that only 1C4Sn clusters form if carbon is a minority impurity. Both types of clusters with the preferential formation of 4C10Sn clusters over 1C4Sn occur if the impurity concentrations are nearly equal or if Sn is a minority impurity. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3580265]“
“Starch/(Ethylene glycol-co-Methacrylic acid) [Starch/(EG-co-MAA)] hydrogels were designed for controlled delivery of pesticides, such as Fluometuron (FH); Thiophanate Methyl (TF) and Trifluralin (TI) which are use in the agricultural field. The delivery device was prepared by using gamma-irradiation and was characterized by FTIR, DSC, and SEM. The swelling behavior of hydrogels as a function of copolymer composition and irradiation dose was detected. This article discusses the swelling kinetics of polymer matrix and release dynamics of Trifluralin from hydrogels for the evaluation of the diffusion mechanism and diffusion coefficients.

The results of the QSAR study show that the derived models are st

The results of the QSAR study show that the derived models are statistically significant and were validated by

external ( test set) and internal ( leave one out) methods. The crossvalidated correlation coefficients (Q(2)) of the models show that the training and test sets have the values >0.6687. The physicochemical descriptors contributed for the models building in training set and complete data set show that the LGX818 log of aqueous solubility (LogS) and the molar refractivity on the van der Waals surface area of the molecules ( SMR_VSA4) positively contributed for the inhibitory activity. Further, the study also reveals that the polarizability and hydrogen bond acceptor/donor groups are important for the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity and these results are in agreement with the earlier studies obtained in our laboratory on alpha-glucosidase

inhibitors which have shows that the polar surface area of the molecule is important for the interaction. The pharmacophore contours of the molecule also showed the importance of the polar surface property on the molecules. This computational analysis will help in the development of novel alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for various diseases.”
“Ballistic phonon transport is investigated in acoustic nanocavities modulated in a quasiperiodic manner at low temperatures. Two different types of quasiperiodic acoustic nanocavities are considered: the lengths of nanocavities (QPL) and the lengths of the bridges (QPD) connecting two successive nanocavities are check details modulated according to the Fibonacci rule. We demonstrate that the transmission spectra and thermal conductance in both systems are similar, which is more prominent in QPD than in QPL. The transmission and thermal conductance of QPD are larger than those of QPL due

to the fact that constant nanocavity STAT inhibitor length in QPD would strengthen ballistic phonon resonant transport, while varying nanocavity length in QPL lead to strong phonon scattering. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3576176]“
“The effects of vagus nerve stimulation on weight in individuals with epilepsy are not fully characterized. A retrospective review was performed of all pediatric patients who underwent placement of a vagus nerve stimulator at Duke University Medical Center. Baseline body mass index (BMI) percentile was compared with percentile on follow-up visits. We studied 23 patients who had undergone VNS placement during the period 2001-2009. Baseline BMI percentile was 61.7 +/- 34.3. We had a power of 81% to detect a difference of 20 in BMI percentile from baseline to last follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up (mean =345 +/- 112 days) and last follow-up (mean 4.2 +/- 2.4 years) the average BMI percentile was 61.6 +/- 31.88 and 56.09 +/- 30.83, respectively.

Splenial fibers represent a population

of excitatory axon

Splenial fibers represent a population

of excitatory axons with varying diameters, which interconnect cortical columns with similar functional properties (i.e., same orientation selectivity) in the two hemispheres. Their branches activate simultaneously distinct iso-oriented columns in the contralateral hemisphere, thus mediating forms of stimulus-dependent interhemispheric synchronization. Callosal branches also make synapses onto GABAergic cells, resulting in an inhibitory modulation of visual processing that involves both iso-oriented and cross-oriented cortical networks. Interhemispheric selleck screening library inhibition appears to predominate at short latencies following callosal activation, whereas excitation becomes more robust with increasing delays. These callosal effects are dynamically adapted to the incoming visual activity, so that stimuli providing only weak afferent input are facilitated by callosal pathways, whereas strong visual input via the retinogeniculate pathway tends to be offset by transcallosal inhibition. We also review data highlighting the contribution of callosal input activity to maturation of visual function during early ‘critical periods’ in brain

development and describe how interhemispheric transfer of visual selleck chemical information is rerouted in cases of callosal agenesis or following splenial damage. Finally, we provide an overview of alterations in splenium anatomy or function that may be at the basis of visual defects in several pathologic conditions.”
“Background-Communication between cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and primary care providers (PCPs) is paramount to promoting long-term risk reduction after the completion of CR. The objectives of this study were to investigate receipt of CR discharge summaries by PCPs, as well as timing, and satisfaction with and perceptions of CR summaries.

Methods and Results-Five hundred seventy-seven eligible PCPs of consenting enrollees from 8 regional or urban Ontario CR programs were invited to participate

in this cross-sectional study. Discharge summaries were tracked from the CR program to the PCP’s office. PCPs who received a summary were mailed a survey assessing their perceptions of the summaries. Of β-Nicotinamide the 138 (24.0%) eligible consenting PCPs, 71 (51.5%) received CR discharge summary, of whom 64 (90.1%) completed the survey. All PCPs desired to receive discharge summaries, with most wanting it transmitted via fax (n=38, 61.3%). Forty-seven (77.1%) PCPs reported they had or will use information in the summary for patient care. PCPs who did not receive the discharge summary in advance of their patient’s first post-CR visit (n=7, 10.9%) were significantly less likely to use it in patient care (P<0.01). On a 5-point Likert scale, PCPs rated medication (4.65+/-0.74), patient care plan (4.43+/-0.87), and clinical status (4.33+/-0.94) as most important to include in a CR discharge summary. These were not provided in 18.8% (n=12), 4.7% (n=3), and 22.

The association analyses were performed at both SNP and haplotype

The association analyses were performed at both SNP and haplotype levels. We further verified our findings in an independent cohort of 442 ischemic stroke cases and 502 control subjects. In the first study, rs2383206, rs1004638, and rs10757278 in block 3 were significantly associated with CAD but not with ischemic stroke independent of traditional cardiovascular

risk factors in additive model (P = 0.002 to 0.0001, q = 0.026 to 0.004). Analysis from all blocks revealed that haplotype profiles of block 3 on 9p21 were significantly different between shared control and cases of CAD (P = 1.3 x 10(-10), q = 1.2 x 10(-9)) and ischemic stroke (P = 1.7 x 10(-6), q = 7.7 x 10(-6)). In the expanded second case-control study, block 3 on 9p21 remained associated with ischemic stroke (P = 2.6 x SBE-β-CD nmr 10(-4), q = 6.3 x 10(-4)).

Conclusions-Our results suggest for the CA4P cost first time that 9p21 is a shared susceptibility locus, strongly

for CAD and weakly for ischemic stroke, in a Chinese Han population. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009; 2: 338-346.)”
“Background-A common variant at chromosome 9p21 (tagged by the rs1333049 or rs10757278 single-nucleotide polymorphism) is strongly associated with myocardial infarction and major arterial aneurysms. An association with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was also reported in a sample younger than 75 years, but this disappeared on removal of respondents with a myocardial infarction history, resulting in an odds ratio of 1.09 for PAD (P = 0.075). We aimed at estimating the association of this variant with an Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) and PAD in 3 older populations.

Methods and Results-We used data from the InCHIANTI, Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, and Health, Aging, and Body Composition studies. In 2630 white individuals

(mean age, 76.4 years), selleck inhibitor the C allele at rs1333049 was associated with lower mean ABI measures and with an increased prevalence of PAD. These associations remained after removal of baseline and incident myocardial infarction cases over a 6-year follow-up for both ABI (-0.017 ABI units; 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.01; P = 1.3 x 10(-4)) and PAD (per allele odds ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.56; P = 0.012). These associations also remained after adjustment for known atherosclerosis risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension.

Conclusions-The C allele at rs1333049 is associated with an increased prevalence of PAD and lower mean ABI. This association was independent of the presence of diagnosed myocardial infarction and atherosclerotic risk factors in 3 older white populations. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009; 2: 347-353.

We should discuss these issues with our patients to help them dec

We should discuss these issues with our patients to help them decide on the kind of matricectomy.

The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.”
“Purpose of review

The purpose of this review is to describe the new insights of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and renal transplantation.

Recent findings

HCV is its most frequent cause of liver disease after transplantation. In the long run, HCV infection can lead to

cirrhosis, hepatocarcinoma and death in some patients. As interferon is generally contraindicated after transplantation, the best way to treat patients is before transplantation. Long-term patient and graft survival rates are lower in HCV-positive patients than in HCV-negative graft recipients. HCV infection is an IWR-1-endo Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor independent risk factor for death and graft loss. Mortality is higher, mainly as a result of cardiovascular complications, liver disease and infections but is lower than in HCV-positive patients on the transplant waiting list. New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), and HCV-related glomerulonephritis, together with chronic rejection and notably transplant glomerulopathy can contribute to graft failure. Despite this factor, transplantation is the best option for the HCV-positive patient on dialysis. Renal transplantation with kidneys from donors with positive anti-HCV antibodies into HCV RNA-positive recipients seems to be safe in the long term.



transplantation is the therapy of choice for dialysis patients with HCV infection.

To improve the results, a careful follow-up in the outpatient clinic for early detection of HCV-related complications is mandatory.”
“Purpose of review

A persistent challenge facing the transplant community is avoiding renal compromise, whether protecting a newly placed kidney allograft or preserving CDK inhibitors in clinical trials native renal function after another organ has been implanted. One of the principal ways to achieve this is by altering the immunosuppressive regimen. We review some of the more important recent studies in this area.

Recent findings

Over the past year, two new immunosuppressive agents have received attention. An immunoselective biologic agent, belatacept, continued to demonstrate a sustained benefit in renal function when compared with a cyclosporine-based regimen. In a phase 2 multicenter study, sotrastaurin, a protein kinase C inhibitor, has shown promise in preserving renal graft function but lacks potency as an immunosuppressive agent. A known agent, everolimus, in combination with reduced doses of calcineurin inhibitors or with other agents, continues to be in the forefront as a promising renal-sparing option. Finally, further investigation into mycophenolate mofetil has shown that it has some advantages as a long-term agent when used in monotherapy.


The new therapies investigated show some promise as potential alternative agents.

Results: A surprisingly low microscopically detectable parasite p

Results: A surprisingly low microscopically detectable parasite prevalence was detected in the Gambia (Farafenni: 10.9%, CI95%: 8.7-13.1%; Basse: 9.0%, CI95%: 7.2-10.8%), and Guinea Bissau (Caio: 4%, CI95%: 2.6-5.4%), with low parasite densities (geometric mean: 104 parasites/mu l, CI95%: 76-143/mu l). In comparison, PCR detected a more than three times higher proportion of parasite carriers, indicating its usefulness to sensitively identify foci where malaria declines, whereas the RDT had

very low sensitivity. Estimates of force of infection using age sero-conversion rates were equivalent to an EIR of approximately 1 infectious bite/person/year, significantly less than previous estimates. The sero-prevalence profiles suggest a gradual decline of malaria transmission, confirming their usefulness in providing CB-839 supplier information on longer term trends of transmission. A greater variability in parasite prevalence among villages within a site than between sites was observed with all methods. The fact that serology equally captured the inter-village variability, indicates that the observed heterogeneity represents a stable selleck pattern.

Conclusion: PCR and serology may be used as complementary tools to survey malaria in areas of declining malaria prevalence such as the Gambia and Guinea Bissau.”
“GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) is the most closely related human virus to hepatitis C virus (HCV). GBV-C is lymphotropic

and not associated with any known disease, although it is associated with improved survival in HIV-infected individuals. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, GBV-C induces the release of soluble ligands for HIV entry receptors (RANTES, MIP-1a, MIP-1b and SDF-1), suggesting that GBV-C may interact with lymphocytes to induce a chemokine and/or cytokine milieu that is inhibitory to HIV infection. Expression of GBV-C envelope

glycoprotein E2 in CD4+ T cells or addition of recombinant E2 to CD4 cells recapitulates the HIV inhibition seen with GBV-C infection. Like HCV E2, GBV-C E2 is predicted to be post-translationally processed in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved with cell binding. The C-termini of GBV-C E1 and E2 proteins contain predicted transmembrane domains sharing features with HCV TM domains. To date, cellular receptor(s) for GBV-C E2 have not been identified. GBV-C E2-mediated HIV inhibition is dose-dependent and SNX-5422 nmr HIV replication is blocked at the binding and/or entry step. In addition, a putative GBV-C E2 fusion peptide interferes with HIV gp41 peptide oligomerization required for HIV-1 fusion, further suggesting that GBV-C E2 may inhibit HIV entry. Additional work is needed to identify the GBV-C E2 cellular receptor, characterize GBV-C E2 domains responsible for HIV inhibition, and to examine GBV-C E2-mediated fusion in the context of the entire envelope protein or viral-particles. Understanding the mechanisms of action may identify novel approaches to HIV therapy.

HAE1, also known as PRO98498, is structurally similar to omalizum

HAE1, also known as PRO98498, is structurally similar to omalizumab (Xolair (R)), a humanized anti-IgE IgG1 marketed for the treatment of asthma,

but differs by 9 amino acid changes in the complementarity-determining region resulting in a 23-fold improvement in affinity. HAE2 is similar to HAE1, but its Fc region was altered to reduce binding to Fc. receptors. As expected given the decreased binding to Fc gamma receptors, systemic exposure to pre-formed HAE2:IgE complexes in mice was greater (six-fold) and distribution to the liver lower (four-fold) compared with HAE1:IgE complexes. In monkeys, systemic exposure to HAE1 was similar to that previously observed for omalizumab in this species, but required comparatively lower serum drug concentrations to suppress free IgE levels. HAE2 treatment resulted in greater exposure and greater increase DMXAA mouse of total IgE, relative to HAE1, because of decreased clearance of HAE2:IgE complexes. Overall, these

data suggest that increased binding affinity to IgE may provide a more effective therapeutic for asthma patients, and that retaining Fc gamma R binding of Screening Library ic50 the anti-IgE antibody is important for elimination of anti-IgE: IgE complexes.”
“Background: Obesity and early menarche have been associated with asthma. In this report, we assess the association of Selleck MG-132 asthma with BMI and with changes in BMI from childhood to early adulthood. In addition, we determine if, in girls, any observed association of asthma with menarche can be explained by BMI. Methods: In a large national birth cohort, the associations of asthma at age 7, 11,

16 and 33 years with BMI, and of, asthma at age 33 years with changes in BMI from age 7 to age 33 years was assessed using logistic and mixed effects models as appropriate. Associations of asthma with age of menarche in girls were similarly assessed with and without adjustment for BMI. Results: Information on asthma, BMI, onset of menarche and confounders at all assessments was available for 1968 girls and 2223 boys. Obesity was relatively uncommon (<2%) in childhood. Overweight (BMI 25+) girls had more asthma. Girls with early menarche were more likely to be overweight. At age 11 years, asthma was associated with early menarche (OR=1.70, 95% CI 1.17-2.47, after adjustment for BMI OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.10-2.34). Across all ages, asthma was significantly associated with BMI (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.18-1.90) but not with early menarche (OR=1.24, 95% CI 0.95-1.63). Conclusion: Asthma is more common in overweight girls. Early menarche is more common in overweight girls but this does not explain its association with asthma at age 11 years. Early menarche is not a risk factor for asthma at age 33 years in this cohort.

Recent advances

Recent advances in air-coupled ultrasonic spectroscopy have enabled ultrasonic waves to be applied to the on-line and real-time assessment of the water content of different materials. In this study, this technique

has been applied as a non-destructive, non-invasive, non-contact, and repeatable method for the determination of water status in Populus3euramericana and Prunus laurocerasus leaves. Frequency spectra of the transmittance of ultrasounds through plant leaves reveal the presence of at least one resonance. At this resonant frequency, transmittance is at its maximum. This work demonstrates that changes in leaf relative water content (RWC) and water potential (W) for both species can be accurately monitored by the corresponding changes in resonant frequency. The differential response found between both species may be due to the contrasting leaf structural features and the differences found in the parameters derived from the P -V curves. The turgor loss point has been precisely defined by this new technique, as it is derived from the lack of significant differences between the relative water content at the turgor loss point (RWCTLP) obtained

from P -V curves and ultrasonic measurements. buy AZD0530 The measurement of the turgor gradient between two different points of a naturally transpiring leaf is easily carried out with the method introduced here. Therefore, such a procedure can be an accurate tool for the study of all processes where changes in leaf water status are involved.”
“In this research, polypropylene/wood-flour composites (WPCs) were blended with different contents see more of wood and/or maleated polypropylene (MAPP) and clay. We found that the addition of MAPP or clay in the formulation greatly improved the dispersion of the wood fibers in the composite; this suggested that MAPP or clay may have played the role of an adhesion promoter in the WPCs. The results obtained with clay indicate that it

also acted as a flame retardant. The thermal tests carried out with the produced samples showed an increased crystallization temperature (T(c)), crystallinity, and melting temperature (T(m)) with wood loading. The increase of the two former parameters was explained by the incorporation of wood flour, which played the role of nucleating agent and induced the crystallization of the matrix polymer. On the other hand, the T(m) increase was ascribed to the insulating properties of wood, which hindered the movement of heat conduction. The effects of UV irradiation on T(m) and T(c) were also examined. T(c) increased with UV exposure time; this implied that UV degradation generated short chains with low molecular weight that could move easily in the bulk of the sample and, thus, catalyze early crystallization. The flexural strength and modulus increased with increasing wood-flour content.