Copyright (C) 2012 S Karger AG, Basel”
“The frequency depen

Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The frequency dependence of magnetization precession in spin pumping has been investigated using the inverse spin-Hall effect in a Pt/Y3Fe5O12

bilayer film. We found that the magnitude of a spin current generated by the spin pumping depends weakly on selleck kinase inhibitor the applied microwave frequency. This weak dependence, which is attributed to the compensation between the frequency change in the spin-pumping cycle and the dynamic magnetic susceptibility, is favorable for making a spin-current-driven microwave demodulator. This behavior is consistent with a model calculation based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation combined with the spin mixing. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3594661]“
“PURPOSE To investigate

the causes of nonphysiologic behavior of the SRK/T formula, assess their clinical significance, and develop and evaluate solutions

SETTING Two NHS ophthalmology departments, United Kingdom, and a private practice, United States

DESIGN Evaluation of technology

METHODS The individual steps of the SRK/T formula were examined for nonphysiologic behavior, and the clinical significance of behaviors was assessed with reference to a database of biometry and refractive outcomes in 11 189 eyes The full data set was divided into 2 subsets, the first to develop solutions to nonphysiologic behavior of the SRK/T formula and the second to evaluate their performance

RESULTS ThE SRK/T formula showed nonphysiologic behavior in the calculation of corrected axial length and corneal height Although the former is of little clinical significance, the latter showed Selleckchem BKM120 a systematic error that contributes to HIF inhibitor inaccurate

intraocular lens (IOL) power prediction The T2 formula was developed using a regression formula for corneal height derived from the development subset Comparison of the performance of the T2 and SRK/T formulas using the evaluation subset showed significant improvement in the mean absolute error with the 12 formula (0 3064 diopter [D] versus 0 3229 D, P< 0001) On average, the prediction error with the T2 formula was 9 7% less than with the SRK/T formula, with significantly higher proportions of eyes within +/- 0 50 D of target (P< 0001)

CONCLUSIONS The SRK/T formula has nonphysiologic behavior that contributes to IOL power prediction errors A modification to the formula algorithm, the T2 formula, can be directly substituted for SMUT, resulting in significantly improved prediction accuracy”
“To determine the usefulness of MspI/int22h-1 (intron 22 homologous region-1) polymorphism of the factor VIII gene for molecular genetic diagnosis of hemophilia A in the Korean population, MspI/intron 22 and XbaI/intron 22 polymorphisms were analyzed in 101 unrelated Korean families with severe hemophilia A. The expected heterozygosity rates of MspI/int22h-1 and XbaI/ int22h-1 polymorphisms were 49.5 and 43.

The described approach can yield data for use in face animation

The described approach can yield data for use in face animation

and other simulation systems and for elucidating the functional components related to contraction and relaxation of muscles during mastication.”
“The traditional surgical treatment of severe spinal deformities, both in adult and pediatric patients, consisted of a 360A degrees approach. Posterior-based spinal osteotomy has recently been reported as a useful and safe technique in maximizing kyphosis and/or kyphoscoliosis correction. It obviates the deleterious effects of an anterior approach and can increase the magnitude of correction both in the coronal and sagittal plane. There are few reports in the literature focusing on the surgical treatment of severe spinal deformities in large pediatric-only series (age < 16 years old) by means of a posterior-based spinal osteotomy, with no consistent Bafilomycin A1 results on the use of a single posterior-based thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomy in the treatment of such challenging group of patients. The purpose of the present study was to review our operative

BI 6727 ic50 experience with pediatric patients undergoing a single level PSO for the correction of thoracic kyphosis/kyphoscoliosis in the region of the spinal cord (T12 and cephalad), and determine the safety and efficacy of posterior thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) in the treatment of severe pediatric deformities. A retrospective review was performed on 12 consecutive pediatric patients (6 F, 6 M) treated by means of a posterior thoracic PSO between 2002 and 2006 in a single Institution. Average age at surgery was 12.6 years (range, 9-16), whereas the deformity was due to a severe BAY 73-4506 juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in seven

cases (average preoperative main thoracic 113A degrees; 90-135); an infantile idiopathic scoliosis in two cases (preoperative main thoracic of 95A degrees and 105A degrees, respectively); a post-laminectomy kypho-scoliosis of 95A degrees (for a intra-medullar ependimoma); an angular kypho-scoliosis due to a spondylo-epiphisary dysplasia (already operated on four times); and a sharp congenital kypho-scoliosis (already operated on by means of a anterior-posterior in situ fusion). In all patients a pedicle screws instrumentation was used, under continuous intra-operative neuromonitoring (SSEP, NMEP, EMG). At an average follow-up of 2.4 years (range, 2-6) the main thoracic curve showed a mean correction of 61A degrees, or a 62.3% (range, 55-70%), with an average thoracic kyphosis of 38.5A degrees (range, 30A degrees-45A degrees), for an overall correction of 65% (range, 60-72%). Mean estimated intra-operative blood loss accounted 19.3 cc/kg (range, 7.7-27.27). In a single case (a post-laminectomy kypho-scoliosis) a complete loss of NMEP occurred, promptly assessed by loosening of the initial correction, with a final negative wake-up test.

Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense di

Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood GDC-0994 obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the

disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(suppl): 1572S-87S.”
“All-atom molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the morphology of polymer/inorganic composite particles prepared by heterocoagulation. The results were also compared to those of our previous study of the preparation of TiO2/poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) and Fe3O4/polystyrene

composite particles. In the simulation system, polymer or inorganic particles were simulated by surface-charge-modified C-60 or Na atoms. Through a combination of analysis of the radial distribution functions of charged atoms and snapshots of the equilibrated structure, three kinds of particle distributions were observed under different conditions. When the polymer and inorganic particles had opposite surface charges and their sizes were very different, Fer-1 the composite morphology showed a core-shell structure with small particles adsorbed onto the surfaces of large particles. Furthermore, when the polymer and inorganic particles had opposite surface charges bet comparable sizes, the polymer and inorganic particles aggregated domain by domain. Finally, when the polymer and inorganic particles were endowed with the same surface charge, the distribution of these two types of particles was homogeneous, regardless of their size difference. The simulation results Were in agreement with the experimental results. The electrostatic interaction and the size of the particles dominated the final morphology of the composite particles when the heterocoagulation

method was used. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Fer-1 J Appl Polym Sci 116: 2275-2284, 2010″
“Frequency-dependent impedance characteristics of flexible thick film EMI filters were investigated for enhanced suppression of high-frequency noise currents in the frequency range from several tens of megahertz to 1.5 GHz. The inductance of the rolled magnetic film filters was much lower than that of the conventional ferrite bead at lower frequencies but the inductance exceeded the level of the ferrite bead above 33-125 MHz because of the higher frequency dependence of real permeability. The enhanced impedance was mainly due to the increased inductance for the rolled thick film filters at lower frequencies of 210-550 MHz, depending on the complex permeability.

Increasing prevalence from 1 3% (2006) to 2 5% (2008) shows emerg

Increasing prevalence from 1.3% (2006) to 2.5% (2008) shows emergence of MRSA ST398 in humans in Austria.”
“Background: The impact of timing of appropriate antibiotic initiation for critically ill children with severe bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is unknown. We hypothesized that longer time to initiation of correct parenteral antibiotic would be associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit length of stay, and hospital length of stay.

Methods: selleck products We retrospectively reviewed medical records of children admitted

to Nationwide Children’s Hospital between January 2004 and December 2006 with bacterial CAP treated with mechanical ventilation, excluding those with documented viral infection. Time to correct antibiotic was defined as time from presentation to any emergency department to the initiation of a parenteral antibiotic to which cultured pathogens were susceptible.

Results: In all, 45 patients, median age 17 months, were identified. Median time to correct antibiotic was 10.3 hours, with 71% of patients receiving selleck correct empiric therapy. After adjusting for severity

of illness, longer time to correct antibiotic was independently associated with longer hospital stay (P = 0.007). For the 23 patients in the cohort for whom pneumonia was the primary diagnosis, longer time to correct antibiotic was independently associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.01), intensive care unit stay (P = 0.001), and hospital stay (P = 0.006).

Delays in antibiotic administration as short as 2 to 4 hours were associated with adverse outcomes in this group.

Conclusions: In our critically ill children with severe bacterial CAP, longer delays in receipt of appropriate empiric antibiotics were independently associated with adverse outcomes.”
“Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, frequently have associated oral motor dysfunction, which leads to feeding difficulties, SCH727965 risk of aspiration, prolonged feeding times, and malnutrition with its attendant physical compromise. The authors propose a comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment, including neurological and dysphagia examination and ear, nose, and throat examination, to evaluate clinical indicators and severity of feeding impairment in children affected by neurodevelopmental disorders. A representative sample of 40 children with cerebral palsy (spastic, dyskinetic, or mixed), intellectual disability, and feeding problems was included in the study. A specific multidisciplinary evaluation and standardized mealtime observation in patients with cerebral palsy appear feasible and appropriate to recognize proactive indicators of dysphagia and to establish personalized programs of gastric and rehabilitative interventions.

The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis vir

The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death. To better understand the ecology of this VEEV strain in Chiapas, we experimentally

infected 5 species of wild rodents and evaluated their competence as reservoir and amplifying hosts. Rodents from 1 species (Baiomys musculus) showed signs of disease and died by day 8 postinoculation. Rodents from the 4 other species (Liomys salvini, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, Oryzomys couesi, and Sigmodon hispidus) became viremic but survived and developed neutralizing antibodies, indicating that multiple species may contribute to VEEV maintenance. By infecting numerous rodent GSK1210151A in vitro species and producing adequate viremia, VEEV may increase its chances of long-term persistence in nature and could increase risk for establishment in disease-endemic areas and amplification outside the disease-endemic range.”
“Background: Malaria still remains

a life-threatening disease worldwide P505-15 price causing between 190 and 311 million cases of malaria in 2008. Due to increased resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the Ministry of Health in Malawi, as in many sub-Saharan African countries, changed the malaria treatment policy to use artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). In order to optimize the correct use of this drug, and protect against the development of the parasite’s resistance, it is important to assess the knowledge and practices of medical practitioners on the use of ACT and its impact on adherence to new treatment policy guidelines.

Methods: A cross-sectional LY294002 survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and perceptions of Malawian medical doctors and pharmacists on the use of ACT and the drivers of treatment choice

and clinical treatment decisions. Medical doctors and pharmacists who are involved in managing malaria patients in Malawi were recruited and a self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants, knowledge on ACT, source of information on ACT and methods used to decide on the treatment of patients with malaria.

Results: Most of the participants (95.7%) know at least one form of ACT, 67.4% reported that different forms of ACT have different characteristics, 77.3% reported that there are special formulations for children. The most commonly mentioned ACT was artemether-lumefantrine (AL), by 94.6% of the participants and 75.0% of the participants indicated that they prefer to prescribe AL. 73.9% of participants had ever received information on ACT. However, only 31.5% had received training on management of malaria using ACT. There were 71.7% respondents who had heard of ACT causing side effects. Only 25.0% of the participants had received training on how to report SAEs.

There are significant differences between US and international cr

There are significant differences between US and international craniofacial surgeons in terms of demographics and practice, with more US surgeons performing fewer major craniofacial osteotomies. There is a significant gender disparity, which warrants further study.”
“Nanoparticles prepared of human serum albumin (HSA) represent promising carriers for drug delivery. Desolvating procedure is a common method to obtain protein-based particles. However process parameters have a great influence on size, size distribution and particle yield of the resulting formulation. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate their effects on particle preparation. This study is focused on the

influence of different desolvating agents on the resulting particle characteristics and cytotoxicity in cell culture. Another aspect of the study was the influence of different stirring rates, pre-stirring of the HSA solution and the GSK1838705A supplier continuous addition of desolvating agent during the preparation process. The results indicate that it is possible to predict the particle size

depending on dielectric constant of the desolvation medium. Remarkably, combination of methanol and ethanol used as desolvating agent was able to produce very small spherical HSA nanoparticles in a size range between 50 and 80 nm.”
“Objective. To investigate the preventive effect of locally applied sodium bicarbonate on bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ).

Study Design. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Animals in group I received 0.1 mg/ kg sterile saline 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Groups II, III, and IV received intraperitoneal zoledronate injection in the same manner with the same frequency and duration. The right first molar tooth was extracted in groups III and IV. One mL 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (SB) was applied to the extraction socket at the time NSC 136476 of extraction in group IV. The effect of locally applied SB as an alkalizing agent was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis.

Results. BRONJ was observed in none of the animals in the control groups, 67% of the

animals in the tooth extraction group, and none of the animals in the local SB application group (P < .01).

Conclusions. Administration of locally applied SB had positive effects on the prevention of BRONJ in animals, but further studies are required to verify the effectiveness of this form of treatment before its use in humans.”
“Purpose Partial pancreatico-duodenectomy is the standard treatment for malignancies of the pancreatic head. We describe a technical modification with a retrograde dissection of the pancreatic head as a novel surgical approach.

Methods Retrograde resection of the pancreatic head is performed starting with the uncinate process after division of the first jejunal loop and transection of the pancreas as the last operative step of the resection. Technical aspects and possible advantages for this procedure are discussed.

“PURPOSE: To analyze corneal astigmatic changes after impl

“PURPOSE: To analyze corneal astigmatic changes after implantation of intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) in keratoconic eyes using the Alpins vectorial method

SETTING: Vissum Corporation, Alicante. Spain.

METHODS: Keraring

ICRS were implanted in eyes with a diagnosis of keratoconus. One of 3 surgeons performed the ICRS implantations using femtosecond technology and following the same protocol Visual, refractive, keratometric, and corneal aberrometric changes were evaluated during a 12-month follow-up Corneal astigmatic changes were also analyzed using the following Alpins vectorial components. targeted induced astigmatism (TIA), surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), difference vector, magnitude of error, flattening effect, and torque.

RESULTS: Postoperatively, there was significant visual improvement (P = .03), significant central flattening (P = .03), and a significant INCB024360 reduction in manifest astigmatism (P<.01). The magnitude of SIA vector was significantly lower than the TIA postoperatively (P >= 02) The mean magnitude of the difference vector 3 months postoperatively

was + 2.96 diopters (D) +/- 1.68 (SD). The mean magnitude of error remained negative and unchanged (P >=.10). The mean magnitude of the flattening effect was significantly lower than the TIA at all postoperative visits (P<.01) The mean magnitude of torque vector was 1.21 +/- 0.98 D at 3 months. Significant negative correlations were found between preoperative corneal astigmatism and the magnitude of error and AZD9291 chemical structure difference vector at all postoperative visits.

CONCLUSION: Although ICRS implantation significantly reduced the magnitude of corneal astigmatism, there was a trend toward undercorrection and the meridian of correction was not appropriate in all cases, showing the need for nomogram adjustments.

Financial Disclosure: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

J Cataract

Refract Surg 2010; 36.1562-1572 (C) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS”
“Strong magnetic fields e.g., 10 T are now frequently used during materials preparation. In the present paper, a method of metal-ceramics graded materials preparation is proposed by applying a strong magnetic field with a high gradient. Experimental and theoretical analyses are performed to investigate the effect of the strong magnetic field on the migration and interaction behavior of diamagnetic oxide particles in a liquid metal. The migration of micrometer or sub-micrometer sized particles is clearly enhanced by the magnetic field gradient. After being treated by the strong magnetic field, a self-assembly structure of the particles is achieved. Various factors such as the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and chain-chain interaction, are governing the particles assembly.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3536788]“<

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3536788]“
“The phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties of the aqueous extract of Cassia arereh stem-bark were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening of active chemical constituents and disc diffusion method was performed to determine the antimicrobial Pfizer Licensed Compound Library price properties. The results revealed the presence of tannins, phlobatannins, carbohydrate, saponin, flvonoids, terpenes and steroids while anthraquinones, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were not detected. The extracts (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/ml) inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas

aerogenosa and Enterobacter species. However, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Corynebacterium pyogenes and Candida albicans were resistant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were 50 mg/ml for S. aureus and B. subtilis, and 100 mg/ml for P. aeurogenosa. It was concluded that the aqueous extract of C. arereh stem-bark contained active principles having antibacterial properties and thus support the folkloric use of the plant.”
“A poly(acrylamide) (PAM) aqueous dispersion with high solid was successfully synthesized

through two-phase polymerization of acrylamide (AM) in aqueous poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solution. To prepare stable PAM aqueous dispersion, PF-04929113 nmr the effects of initiator, monomer and PEG concentration on the AR-13324 order stability of the aqueous two-phase polymerization system were investigated in detail. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was applied to study the evolution of the size and size distribution of the aqueous PAM droplet in the initial stage of polymerization. A droplet aggregation period was found in the initial stage, in which the PAM coagulum is easy to be generated below the conversion of about 5% due to high

polymerization rate. By analyzing the effects of PEG on the stability of this polymerization system, it was found that PEG plays both precipitant and stabilizer role. When PEG concentration ranges from 12 to 24%, increasing its use would pro-mote the droplet stabilization; however, when PEG concentration exceeds 28%, increasing its use may accelerate the droplet formation which does not further favor the droplet stabilization. Furthermore, the viscosity evolution during the polymerization under various reaction conditions was determined by rotational viscometer on line. When monomer concentration exceeded 8%, increasing the initiator or monomer concentration would result in that the polymer produced in the continuous phase could not be separated in time due to the high viscosity. All these results demonstrated that the slower the polymerization rate is, the more stable PAM aqueous dispersion will be. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

5 days while for patients with PASI scores of >= 13, it was si

5 days while for patients with PASI scores of >= 13, it was significantly shorter at 120.1 days. Five adverse events were recorded in three patients, but were not serious. The total Skindex-16 score significantly decreased especially in the “”emotions’ and “”functioning”" categories. GHQ scores also significantly decreased in “”somatic symptoms,”"”"anxiety and insomnia,”" and “”depression”". With regard to patients’ satisfaction with their therapy,

88.5% of the patients reported “”satisfied”" or “”slightly satisfied”". These results demonstrate that low-dose, short-term administration of CyA (3 mg/kg per day) is one of the best therapies for psoriasis patients with PASI scores of < 13, while QOL assessment is a very selleck kinase inhibitor useful tool for evaluating the value of therapy.”
“Objective: Surrogate markers are often used in clinical trials if too much time or expense is involved to observe

the effect of treatment on patient-important outcomes. We wished to estimate the ultimate effects of treatment when randomized trials have addressed only a surrogate marker, and additional, independent studies evaluate the association between the surrogate and the final outcome.

Study Design and Setting: We show how to calculate the overall effect of treatment on a final outcome, together with its standard error and confidence interval. The methods are illustrated with Selleckchem Mizoribine data on the effect of therapy on hepatitis B seroconversion, a surrogate marker, and its association with patient-important outcomes (cirrhosis and liver cancer).

Results: We find that CX-6258 in vivo the effect of treatment on the final outcome may be small even if there are strong associations between treatment and the surrogate and between the surrogate and the patient-important outcome.

Conclusion: Apparently, robust treatment effects on surrogates are likely to lead to small and uncertain effects on patient-important outcomes. We should be cautious in advising patients to adopt a therapy when compelling evidence is restricted to its impact on surrogate outcomes, particularly

if that therapy may be toxic or otherwise cause harms. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Frontonasal dysplasia is a rare entity. It has characteristic physical deformities: hypertelorism, broad nasal root, median facial cleft of the upper lip or palate, clefting of the nasal alae, poorly formed nasal tip, cranium bifidum occultum, and a widow’s peak hairline. Fibrous dysplasia is a benign bone tumor in which normal bone is replaced by fibrous, poorly formed osseus tissues. We present a patient with frontonasal dysplasia who desired correction of her hypertelorism. Incidentally, fibrous dysplasiawas found in her left orbit complicating surgical correction. In addition, the patient has velopharyngeal insufficiency and a class III malocclusion. The interplay of all these craniofacial defects makes the sequencing and timing of surgery important in this unique patient.

The prepared grafted antioxidant improves the mechanical properti

The prepared grafted antioxidant improves the mechanical properties of NBR vulcanizate. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 2461-2467, 2011″
“Rheological characterization of inks for the inkjet printing application has been buy VS-6063 considered to be essential with dissemination of applying the inkjet printing technology into many related industries. In this study, the high concentrated Ag suspension was prepared using poly(acrylic acid) as both a polyelectrolyte and a polymeric dispersant, and rheological properties of the suspension such as shear stress, shear viscosity, and dynamic moduli were examined using a rotational rheometer. The difference

of rheological properties was investigated with different concentrations of the polyelectrolyte. The shear thinning effects and yield behavior of suspension were analyzed using rheological constitutive equations of state. (C) 2010

American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3511682]“
“Myasthenia gravis (MG) and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) are immune-mediated syndromes that can represent paraneoplastic disorders. We report a patient with history of ovarian carcinoma that presented with ptosis, diplopia and gait ataxia. Neurophysiological examination and laboratory tests revealed the presence of MG and PCD. An integrated FDG-PET/contrast-enhanced CT scan showed tumor recurrence. This is to the Tariquidar best of our knowledge the first association of MG and PCD with recurring ovarian carcinoma.”
“This work investigates the effect of the addition of a well-known antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol in poly (lactic acid) flexural and barrier properties. For that purpose, films of poly(lactic acid) enriched with 0, 2.2, and 4.4% of alpha-tocopherol were prepared. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis were used to characterize the changes in the mechanical and thermal properties. The sorption of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the prepared enriched films of poly(lactic

acid) was measured at different temperatures between 283 and 313 K and pressures up to atmospheric pressure using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Although no significant changes were found in the mechanical and thermal properties, the addition of alpha-tocopherol promotes an increasing in the oxygen sorption and the convex shape of the isotherms indicate a strong interaction gas-polymer. Regarding the sorption of carbon dioxide, no pronounced effect was found. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 2468-2475, 2011″
“Random networks of carbon nanotubes and metallic nanowires have shown to be very useful in the production of transparent, conducting films. The electronic transport on the film depends considerably on the network properties, and on the interwire coupling.