Initial cell adhesion of mouse osteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1 was

Initial cell adhesion of mouse osteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1 was enhanced, and, marked progress of actin filaments was observed on TZP-CA compared to on TZP. After 3, 5 or 7 days, cell proliferation on TZP-CA was significantly higher than that on TZP. Alkaline phosphatase activity was slightly lower on TZP-CA than on TZP at 7 days, and no difference was observed at 14 or 21 days. At 28 days incubation, collagenous Dinaciclib ic50 fibers with mineral precipitants accompanied by phosphorous and amino groups were observed. These results indicate that thin CA coating with molecular precursor

method offers promise as a means of enhancing cell response, particularly initial adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells.”
“Most cases of Type 2 diabetes are attributable to excess weight and physical inactivity. We investigated trends in mortality based on doctors certification

of diabetes and obesity.\n\nAnalysis of a national data set of all certified causes of death, i.e. underlying cause and contributing causes (mentions), in England 19952010.\n\nDiabetes exhibited divergent trends for mortality based on underlying cause and mentions. Underlying cause rates were 107.2 per million population [95 confidence interval (CI): 105.7108.6] in 1995, but only 68.9/10(6) Selleck Kinase Inhibitor Library (CI: 67.969.9) in 2010. Mortality rates for mentions of diabetes were 403.1/10(6) (CI: 400.4405.8) in 1995, increasing to 478.4/10(6) (CI: 475.7481.0) in 2010. Underlying cause mortality for obesity was 3.7/10(6) (CI: 3.24.1) in 1995 and 7.5 (CI: 7.08.0) in 2010. The corresponding rates for mentions of obesity were 13.2/10(6) (CI: 12.613.9) and 34.5/10(6) (CI: 33.635.4), respectively. 24.0 of death certificates with a mention of obesity also had diabetes recorded on the same certificate.\n\nMultiple-cause mortality statistics provide a more accurate picture than underlying cause of the total mortality burden attributed on death certificates to diabetes and obesity. Rates for both increased substantially: analysis by underlying cause alone would have missed this for diabetes.”
“Biosynthesis of hydroxybenzoates even at enzymatic level. is poorly understood.

In this report, effect of feeding of putative biosynthetic precursors and pathway-specific enzyme inhibitors of early phenylpropanoid pathway on p-hydroxybenzoic acid accumulation in chitosan-elicited hairy roots of Daucus carota was studied. Three selective metabolic inhibitors selleck inhibitor of plant phenylpropanoid pathway, namely, aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), piperonylic acid (PIP) and 3,4-methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA), which are known to inhibit phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) respectively, the three early enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism, were chosen with the anticipation that selective inhibition of these enzymes in vivo may provide information on the metabolic route to p-hydroxybenzoic acid formation. Supplementation of AOAA (0.2-1.0 mM) and PIP (0.2-1.

Discussion: These results support the role of TNF-alpha in th

\n\nDiscussion: These results support the role of TNF-alpha in the upstream Panobinostat cascade of cellular events involved in the underlying pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Strategies targeting the early attenuation of TNF-alpha within the DRG during the first week post-injury may have significant clinical impact in preventing the downstream cascade of events involved in the underlying cellular pathology of neuropathic pain.”
“Objective: Pancreastatin is a fragment of the chromogranin A (CgA) molecule. Existing pancreastatin assays, which depend on antibodies that cross-react in varying percents with the larger prohormone, may lack sensitivity and specificity

to detect small changes in neuroendocrine tumor volume.\n\nMethods: We developed a highly specific, sensitive pancreastatin assay. The antibody used

recognizes the carboxyl terminal of the peptide hormone and was raised against a 17-amino acid porcine pancreastatin fragment with high homology with the carboxy-terminal amino acids 286301 of the human CgA.\n\nResults: Our assay measures more than 95% of circulating pancreastatin levels; has little or no cross-reactivity with CgA, even at plasma concentrations of 1000 ng/mL; and can detect pancreastatin levels of 17 pg/mL. Interassay reproducibility for the pancreastatin Fludarabine purchase radioimmunoassay was determined from results of 3 quality control pools in 15 consecutive assays. Coefficients of variation for low, medium, and high pancreastatin levels were less than 20%. The sensitivity of serial pancreastatin assays to detect early liver tumor activity YH25448 was demonstrated in 2 patients with slowly progressive neuroendocrine tumors and in patients undergoing surgical cytoreduction.\n\nConclusions: This highly specific, sensitive pancreastatin assay can detect small changes in liver tumor progression and is up to 100-fold more sensitive

and specific than CgA assays in the United States.”
“Eupatorium odoratum Linn is found in the tribal area of Koraput district and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people as anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antifungal and wound healing. The present study is an attempt to preliminary investigation of phytochemical constituent and to explore the anthelmintic activity of different extracts of leaves of plant Eupatorium odoratum using petroleum ether, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. The various doses of extracts were screened for phytochemical constituent and evaluated for their anthelmintic activities on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Tests for alkaloid and tannins were positive in all extracts except tannin was absent in petroleum ether. Tests for saponin, protein, aminoacid and anthraquinone glycoside were negative in all extracts. All extracts were able to show anthelmintic activity at 2.5 mg/ml concentration. The activities are comparable with the standard drugs, piperazine citrate and albendazole.

2 years)

The rs25531 polymorphism was genotyped in both

2 years).

The rs25531 polymorphism was genotyped in both groups. Because of its close proximity to rs25531, the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism was also genotyped. Genotype and allele frequencies for rs25531 and for the composite 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 marker were analyzed by chi(2) test.\n\nRESULTS: There was no significant association between any genotype and clinical category and no significant allele distribution profiles for rs25531 or 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 in either the premenstrual dysphoric disorder or the control groups.\n\nCONCLUSION: These findings do not support a major role for rs25531, either in isolation or combined with 5-HTTLPR, in contributing to susceptibility to premenstrual dysphoria.”
“OBJECTIVES This study sought to evaluate the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition, morphology, and outcomes in patients with acute coronary learn more syndromes (ACS).\n\nBACKGROUND CKD patients presenting with ACS are at increased risk for adverse events. Whether or not this increased risk reflects differences in coronary plaque composition remains unknown.\n\nMETHODS In the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study, patients presenting with ACS in whom percutaneous coronary intervention was successful underwent 3-vessel grayscale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. Lesions

were prospectively characterized, and patients were followed for a median of 3.4 years. We conducted a patient-level and lesion-level analysis of study participants by comparing intravascular ultrasound parameters of untreated nonculprit lesions in patients with and without CKD.\n\nRESULTS Patients with CKD (n = 73, 11.3%) were older, more see more often female and diabetic compared to those without CKD (n = 573). Nonculprit lesions in patients with (n = 280) versus without (n = 2,390)

CKD were more likely to have plaque burden >= 70% (11.8% vs. 8.5%, p = 0.05) and minimal luminal area >= 4.0 mm(2) (25.9% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.005). The percentage of plaque comprised of necrotic core (15.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.0001) and dense calcium (8.2% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.0001) was higher while fibrous tissue (57.7% vs. 59.8%, p < 0.0001) was lower in CKD versus non-CKD lesions. The 3-year composite rate of cardiac death, cardiac arrest, or myocardial infarction (15.1% vs. 3.3%, p < 0.0001) was significantly higher in patients with than in those without CKD, although there were no differences in the rates of events adjudicated to nonculprit lesions.\n\nCONCLUSIONS Following percutaneous coronary intervention of all culprit lesions in ACS, patients with versus without CKD have more extensive and severe atherosclerosis remaining in their coronary tree with plaque composed of greater necrotic core and less fibrous tissue.

Furthermore, topical application

Furthermore, topical application SC79 datasheet of Fraction 3 increased the activity of catalase and suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in mice exposed to UVB. In addition, in comparison with ISO-1 and genistein, the Fraction 3 possessed much greater protective effects on both UVB-induced oxidative stress and keratinocyte death than other fractions. Therefore, the soy isoflavone

extract Fraction 3 from soybean cake is a desirable anti-photoaging agent for skin care.”
“Adipokines are cytokines derived from adipose tissue. Recently it has been established that adipokines are closely linked to the pathophysiology of not only DAPT inhibitor metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus,

obesity, and atherosclerosis, but also to inflammation and immune diseases. In this study we measured serum levels of adipokines in patients with acute Kawasaki disease to investigate the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease. Serum resistin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a total of 117 subjects: 56 patients with acute Kawasaki disease, 30 healthy children, and 31 patients with acute infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease were significantly higher than those of healthy children and patients with acute infectious diseases. In contrast, mean serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease exhibited no statistically significant differences compared with those in healthy children and patients with infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels decreased ON-01910 in vivo significantly after administration of intravenous immune globulin. Serum resistin levels on admission were significantly

higher in nonresponders compared with responders to intravenous immune globulin therapy. A multivariate model revealed that C-reactive protein was a factor that was significantly related to elevated serum resistin level in patients with Kawasaki disease. In patients with Kawasaki disease, serum resistin levels were elevated, but decreased to nearly normal after intravenous administration of immune globulin. In contrast, serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels showed no statistically significant changes. These findings suggest that resistin plays an important role, while other adipokines do not play a major role, in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease.”
“Studying the dynamics of stem water content (theta ) in living trees has an outstanding physiological interest but all the available techniques to measure theta exhibit major drawbacks. In this work, we present a new methodology to estimate variations in theta along with sap velocity using the compensated heat pulse (CHP) technique.

78) The predictive model incorporating LHBs, HBsAg and HBV DNA c

78). The predictive model incorporating LHBs, HBsAg and HBV DNA could discriminate VR at baseline (AUC 0.79) and showed an association with serological response (SR) at week 12 (AUC 0.80) in peginterferon alfa-2a group.\n\nConclusions: On-treatment quantification of serum LHBs may be a more useful parameter for predicting VR in patients on peginterferon alfa-2a than those on entecavir. Combining LHBs, HBsAg and HBV DNA can predict VR and SR more effectively and earlier. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background and purpose: The role of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation

(STN DBS) in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) is well established. The authors present a group of patients diagnosed Selleck CYT387 with PD who were treated with STN DBS.\n\nMaterial and methods: Between 2008 Ro-3306 and 2009, 32 female and 34

male patients with PD were treated with STN DBS. Mean age at implantation was 57 +/- 12 years. PD lasted from 6 to 21 years (mean 10 years). Patients were qualified for the surgery according to the CAPSIT-PD criteria. The STN was identified with direct and indirect methods. Macrostimulation and microrecording for STN identification were used in all cases. A unilateral STN DBS system was implanted in two cases and bilateral implantation was performed among rest of the group. Outcome was assessed six months after implantation.\n\nResults: The mean reduction of UPDRS III score among SI patients who underwent follow-up was 45% (5-89%). Reduction of levodopa consumption varied from 15 to 100%.

Infection forced the authors to remove the DBS system in one case four months after implantation. Skin erosion above the internal pulse generator was noted in four cases.\n\nConclusions: Cardinal symptoms of Parkinson’s disease can be safely and effectively treated with STN DBS in selected group of patients.”
“Learning the structure of a sequence of target locations when target location is not the response dimension and the sequence of target locations is uncorrelated with the sequence of responses is called pure perceptual-based sequence learning. The paradigm introduced by G. Remillard (2003) was used to determine whether orienting of visuospatial attention is an important component of the learning buy CP-868596 process. Three experiments revealed that the presence of an attention-capturing distractor impaired learning, whereas the presence of a distractor that was expected not to capture attention did not impair learning. These results suggest that the learning mechanism associates only those locations receiving visuospatial attention.”
“Studies on the relationship between the optimal phenotype and its environment have had limited focus on genotype-to-phenotype pathways and their evolutionary consequences. Here, we study how multi-layered trait architecture and its associated constraints prescribe diversity.

Subsequent studies will use these findings as a reference not onl

Subsequent studies will use these findings as a reference not only for quantifying trunk stiffness and damping in individuals with various neuromuscular disorders, but also for assessing whether neuroprostheses

could increase upper body stiffness and, hence, stability. (C) 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Risk factors have been proposed for running injuries including (a) reduced muscular strength, (b) excessive joint movements and (c) excessive joint moments in the frontal and transverse Y-27632 concentration planes. To date, many running injury prevention programs have focused on a “top down” approach to strengthen the hip musculature in the attempt to reduce movements and

moments at the hip, knee, and/or ankle joints. However, running Selleck BYL719 mechanics did not change when hip muscle strength increased. It could be speculated that emphasis should be placed on increasing the strength of the ankle joint for a “ground up” approach. Strengthening of the large and small muscles crossing the ankle joint is assumed to change the force distribution for these muscles and to increase the use of smaller muscles. This would be associated with a reduction of joint and insertion forces, which could have a beneficial effect on injury prevention. However, training of the ankle joint as an injury prevention strategy has not been studied. Ankle strengthening techniques include isolated strengthening or movement-related strengthening such as functional balance training. There is little knowledge about the efficacy of such training programs on strength alteration, gait or injury reduction. Methods/Design: Novice runners will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: an isolated ankle strengthening group (strength,

n = 40), a functional balance training group (balance, n = 40) or an activity-matched control group (control, n = 40). Isokinetic strength will be measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Running kinematics and kinetics will be assessed using 3D motion analysis and a force platform. Postural control will be assessed by quantifying the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure trace during single find more leg stance on a force platform. The change pre- and post-training in isokinetic strength, running mechanics, and postural control variables will be compared following the interventions. Injuries rates will be compared between groups over 6 months. Discussion: Avoiding injury will allow individuals to enjoy the benefits of participating in aerobic activities and reduce the healthcare costs associated with running injuries.”
“Metronomic chemotherapy has been advocated recently as a novel chemotherapeutic regimen.

84% wearing shoes too small Unrelated to shoe fit, 20% of the at

84% wearing shoes too small. Unrelated to shoe fit, 20% of the athletes required referrals for professional follow-up based on abnormal clinical findings.\n\nConclusions: There is a significant (41.44%) mismatch of foot to shoe in Special Olympics athletes. The most common mismatch LY2835219 in vitro is a shoe too big, with a much smaller number of athletes having shoes too small. Awareness of this foot-to-shoe incompatibility may be useful for the development of shoes better

designed for athletes with a foot structure not consistent with conventional shoes. Because 20% of the athletes required a referral for professional follow-up, Fit Feet examinations are important for identifying athletes with conditions that can be more readily evaluated and treated, thus improving the athletes’ comfort and performance. Beyond knowing the rate of referral, future studies can determine the conditions or findings that necessitate a referral and the ultimate outcome of that referral. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(3): 187-197, 2012)”
“An elevated

atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost SNX-5422 order leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates

using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal PD98059 supplier conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 degrees C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4m(2)m(-2), can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields.

Results: The exposed population was shown to have significant

\n\nResults: The exposed population was shown to have significantly lower quality of life (QOL) scores in physical, psychological and social C188-9 purchase relationship domains, but not in the environmental domain compared to the unexposed population. These findings were observed in all age groups with the greatest decrease found among those younger than 25 years old. Female subjects were shown to have

larger decrease than male subjects.\n\nConclusions: More than 10 years after being informed of radiation exposure, the exposed populations were observed to have significantly lower perception of HRQoL even though no biomedical effects were apparent. It is recommended that appropriate intervention be carried out in the follow-up of post-event rehabilitation for the radiation exposed.”
“An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary betaine levels on the growth performance and hepatic intermediary metabolism of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (mean initial PXD101 body weight: 78.3 +/- 1.3 g, means +/- SD). Six practical diets were formulated with the incorporation of betaine at the levels of 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g kg(-1). Survival showed

no significant differences among the treatments (P > 0.05). The highest and lowest weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed Autophagy Compound Library research buy for fish fed the diets containing

5 and 0 g kg(-1) (control) betaine, respectively. Feed intake showed similar trend with WG and SGR. In contrast, feed conversion ratio was the lowest when dietary betaine level was 5 g kg(-1). In general, dietary betaine supplementation showed no significant effect on hepatic composition of tilapia. Condition factor and viscerosomatic index tended to increase with increasing dietary betaine levels from 0 to 5 g kg(-1) and then decline when dietary betaine levels further increased from 5 to 25 g kg(-1). In contrast, hepatosomatic index declined with increasing dietary betaine levels (P < 0.05). Dietary betaine levels significantly influenced several hepatic enzymatic activities, including succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, malic dehydrogenase, lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, suggesting that dietary betaine addition had significant effects on nutrient metabolism in the liver. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis of WG, 12.5 g kg(-1) of dietary betaine level seemed optimal for genetically improved farmed tilapia strain of O. niloticus.”
“Microdamage progression in bone is dependent on the ultrastructure of the tissue. Thus, any pathological changes in bone ultrastructure may be reflected in the pattern and capacity of microdamage accumulation.

3 to 97 7% in large cages Transgenic males showed a lower compet

3 to 97.7% in large cages. Transgenic males showed a lower competitiveness

in large cages compared to small cages regardless of the presence of swarming stimuli. Conclusions: The results of the present study are discussed Selleck P005091 in view of the progressive evaluation of genetically modified A. gambiae strains and the potential applications of reproducing swarms in controlled conditions to dissect the mating behaviour of this species and the mechanisms controlling it.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence on the results of the main variables of ELISA used for the detection of antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibodies (aPE). Forty sera from patients with either autoimmune disorders including antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) or the clinical features of APS only were assayed by ELISA performed under different conditions. Variables were sources of PE (egg yolk, soybean, bovine brain or Escherichia coil), microtiter plates (plain or gamma irradiated) and buffer components-fetal calf serum (FCS), adult bovine plasma (ABP), adult bovine serum (ABS) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). aPE binding was decreased with PE from E. coil while the other tested PE gave comparable results. The influence of the type of plates was restricted to IgM isotype with slightly, but significantly higher optical densities with plain than with irradiated

plates. Most importantly, Selleck AS1842856 the component buffer had the highest impact on the results as shown by a strong decrease of the signal by ABP or ABS. This inhibitory effect was confirmed by using mixtures of FCS or BSA with increasing concentrations of ABS. Partial delipidation of ABS resulted in a recovery of OD levels close to those obtained with FCS. This study is the first to demonstrate that aPE reactivity is dependent on the lipid concentration of the buffer component. These results highlight the need for standardization of aPE-ELISA for a better understanding of their clinical significance.

(C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Aim: We investigated MLN2238 research buy the dietary and gender influences on the expression and functionality of cholangiocyte bile salt transporters and development of biliary hyperplasia in cholesterol gallstone-susceptible C57L/J and resistant AKR/J mice.\n\nMethods: C57L and AKR mice were fed chow, a lithogenic diet, or a cholic acid-containing diet for 14 days. Expression of cholangiocyte bile salt transporter proteins ASBT (SLC10A2), ILBP (FABP6), and MRP3 (ABCC3) were studied by Western blot analysis. Taurocholate uptake studies were performed using microperfusion of isolated bile duct units. The pre- and post-perfusion taurocholate concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Biliary proliferation in liver sections was scored.\n\nResults: The lithogenic diet induced ductular proliferation in C57L mice.

Participants received a non-standardized, personalized, multimoda

Participants received a non-standardized, personalized, multimodal approach to chronic pain. Validated instruments for pain (severity and interference levels), quality of life, mood, stress, sleep, fatigue, sense of control, overall

well-being, and work productivity were completed at baseline and at six, 12, and 24 PD-L1 inhibitor weeks. Blood was collected at baseline and week 12 for analysis of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Repeated-measures analysis was performed on data to assess change from baseline at 24 weeks.\n\nResults: Of 409 participants initially enrolled, 252 completed all follow-up visits during the 6 month evaluation. Participants were predominantly white (81%) and female (73%), with a mean age of 49.1 years (15.44) and an average of 8.0 (9.26) years of chronic pain. At baseline, 52% of patients reported symptoms consistent with depression. At 24 weeks, significantly decreased pain severity (-23%) and interference (-28%) were seen. Significant improvements in mood, stress, quality of life, fatigue, sleep and well-being were also observed. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased from 33.4 (17.05) U0126 mw ng/mL at baseline to

39.6 (16.68) ng/mL at week 12.\n\nConclusions: Among participants completing an integrative medicine program for chronic pain, significant improvements were seen in pain as well as other relevant patient-reported outcome measures.”
“The pressure dependence of the CO2/propylene oxide copolymerization catalyzed by zinc glutarate was studied in this article. The effects of pressure on the product composition, yield, backbone structure of poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC), molecular weight and its distribution, and thermal stability were systematically investigated. Low pressure favored formation of byproducts Selleck GSK3326595 (cyclic carbonate and polyether), whereas PPC still covered the majority of the product under 0.5 MPa. The copolymerization rate increased with pressure increasing under low pressures. Higher pressure led to a decline in the polymer yield because of catalyst/epoxide

dilution. On the other hand, the carbonate linkage fraction decreased slightly with the drop of pressure, from 99% at 5.2 MPa to 96% at 0.5 MPa. All the PPCs synthesized under different pressures exhibited high molecular weights and broad distributions. However, the polymer prepared under 0.5 MPa possessed a relatively lower thermal stability than others. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 366-371, 2010″
“Background: Transfer of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon aims to restore function and relieve pain in chronic Achilles tendon (AT) disease. The goal of the present study was to investigate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of FHL transfer to the AT and to compare the transtendinous technique to the transosseous technique.