3). Another implication of these same results is that the inner portion of extensive crops or pastures may also offer only a limited potential contribution to BN establishment. In this sense, the traditional SC crop, both because of its small area (±0.5 ha) and because of its adjustable form that fits into spaces amid mature BN trees, seems to be the most suitable regeneration site to promote the BN population increase. Admitting similarities between the shifting cultivation
model of contemporary extractive communities and the itinerant agricultural practices of pre-columbian Amerindian societies, our results offer support for the anthropogenic origin hypothesis formulated to explain the highly clumped distribution of BN populations. check details The landholder who preserves a secondary forest naturally enriched with BN trees, plans to use it as an extractive area. The result of this practice is a landscape management opportunity that is particular to extractive settlements near BN stands, where the deforested areas for crop use may eventually return to forest after a few SC cycles. This voluntary protection should not be perceived as a product of ecological conscience or fear of penalties associated with the removal of BN trees, though such removal is illegal in Brazil. The enriched fallows are primarily JNK inhibitor protected for an economic reason, when forest
dwellers recognize their potential extractive value. From that point, enriched fallows acquire a protected status equivalent to that of mature nut-producing forests and are watched over by the extractivist community. In addition to the 12 fallows declared as protected among our 40 sites (Fig. 4a), many other secondary forests having abundant BN trees were identified by local dwellers as sites under conservation. Even when BN density does not compensate for Orotic acid the loss of cultivation
area, the landholder may limit the slash-and-burn extension to preserve at least some BN regeneration. The spared trees that typically surround the perimeter of the cultivated areas are significantly higher/larger than those within the sites (Fig. 4b and c). BN are long-lived trees. In the forest they require 125 ± 50 years (Zuidema, 2003) to 208 years (Baider, 2000) to reach maturity. However, in fallows and in open sites, BN trees exhibit growth rates comparable to those of pioneer species. They have been considered a promising tree for timber plantations (Fernandes and Alencar, 1993) or for biological reconstruction of degraded areas (Salomão et al., 2006). In plantations, the species bears fruit at 12 years (Clay, 1997), 10 years (Mori and Prance, 1990), or even at 5 years (Shanley and Medina, 2005). The fact of such precocious maturity supports the protection of BN enriched fallows as a viable economical alternative. From an economic perspective, the density increase of BN trees in fallows is a by-product of normal agricultural activities and thus demands neither extra effort nor any investment by the landholder or his family.