Ten grams of each honey sample were taken, diluted in tepid water

Ten grams of each honey sample were taken, diluted in tepid water and 95% ethanol, centrifuged, de-hydrated with anhydrous acetic acid, submitted to the acetolysis method with acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid (9:1) and successively centrifuged (Erdtman, 1960). After the acetolysis process, slides containing glycerinated gelatin were prepared for the mounting of the pollen grains, which were later examined and identified by optical microscopy. The frequency classes were established from counting at least 300 pollen grains for each honey sample. The classification was based upon

the following criteria: predominant pollen type (DP, >45%), secondary pollen type (SP, 16–45%), important minor pollen (IMP, 3–15%) and minor pollen (MP, <3%). The identification of pollen types found in each sample was based on selleck products pollen catalogues and comparison with the slide collection of the pollen libraries from the Federal University of the West of the Pará (PUFOPA) and the State University of the Santana

Fair (PUEFS). The determination of total phenolic content of the honey samples and the ethyl acetate fractions (EtOAct) was conducted www.selleckchem.com/products/Rapamycin.html by the colorimetric Folin–Ciocalteu method (Slinkard & Singleton, 1977). A 300-μL aliquot of methanol extract (5 mg mL−1 in MeOH) was transferred to a test tube containing 60 μL of the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and 2.46 μL of distilled water. The mixture was stirred for 1 min before 180 μL of Na2CO3 (15%) were added. The contents were stirred for an additional 0.30 min to obtain a final extract concentration of 0.2 mg mL−1. The samples were kept in the dark for 2 h prior to analysis using a UV–Vis spectrophotometer at 760 nm. The total phenolic content (TFC) was determined Tacrolimus (FK506) by interpolation of the sample absorbance against a calibration curve built with gallic acid standards (0.001–0.015 mg mL−1

in ethanol) and expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalents per gram of extract (mg GAE/g). All the analyses were performed in triplicate. The ABTS test was performed according to the methodology reported by Re et al. (1999). The cation radical ABTS + was synthesised by the reaction of a 7 mM ABTS solution with a 2.45 mM potassium persulfate solution. The mixture was kept at 23 °C in the dark for 16 h. Afterwards, the ABTS + solution was diluted with ethanol until an absorbance (A) of 0.7 at 734 nm was achieved in a UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Aliquots of 2.7 mL from the ABTS + solution were added, immediately after being prepared, to the sample solutions diluted in methanol (MeOH) to reach final concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 mg mL−1. After 10 min, the percentage inhibition of absorbance at 734 nm was calculated for each concentration, relative to the blank absorbance (ethanol).

, 2012c) It is clearly shown in Table 4 that the contents of dai

, 2012c). It is clearly shown in Table 4 that the contents of daidzein, genistein and glycitein increased after

2 h of hydrolysis for both experiments. Additionally, it has to be considered that there are other types of isoflavone glucosides in the soy molasses, which can also be converted to other forms at different proportions. http://www.selleckchem.com/products/obeticholic-acid.html The immobilised β-glucosidase presented minimal difference in conversion efficiency of isoflavones compared to the free enzyme, but this result may be explained by the lower enzyme accessibility to the substrate caused by the immobilisation process. This lower isoflavone hydrolysis efficiency exhibited by the immobilised enzyme can be compensated by reuse of the beads. The operational stability of immobilised cells containing β-glucosidase was evaluated at 50 °C using pNPβGlc or soy molasses isoflavones as substrates. In the first cycle the activity with pNPβGlc was 0.26 U/g; followed by 0.12 U/g and 0.04 U/g in the second and third cycles, respectively. The reaction product was not detected in the subsequent cycles. In the first cycle of isoflavone glucosides conversion, the rate of aglycones C59 mw present in the total of isoflavones

was 11.3%, 23.7%, 39.1%, 72.7% and 95.3% with 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min of hydrolysis, respectively. There was no change in the concentration of aglycones during the second cycle of hydrolysis. These results indicate that the immobilisation system presents low stability at 50 °C. β-Glucosidase from Paecilomyces thermophila was capable of converting nearly all isoflavone glucosides (above 95%) and malonyl glucosides were little hydrolyzed by this enzyme in soybean flour extract ( Yang et al., 2009).

The results of isoflavone glucoside conversion in soy molasses by intracellular Amobarbital β-glucosidase from D. hansenii UFV-1 are interesting because D. hansenii is a nonpathogenic yeast and it is found in various types of food. The use of immobilised yeast cells in calcium alginate by the food industry makes the enzyme more stable; thus the process is more economical and the conversion of isoflavone glycosides to their aglycone forms is possible, which means that the bioavailability of these compounds in soy molasses will be higher. Intracellular β-glucosidase from D. hansenii UFV-1 was produced, purified, characterised and also immobilised in calcium alginate. This enzyme presents promise for industrial applications since it showed great ability to hydrolyze isoflavone glucosides from soy molasses, in both its free and immobilised forms. The results reported indicate that the D. hansenii UFV-1 β-glicosidase may be used for establishment of a process to improve the nutritional value of soy products by hydrolyzing isoflavones in soy molasses to their aglycon forms.

80 to 2 54 ppm These concentrations were based on previous studi

80 to 2.54 ppm. These concentrations were based on previous studies which established their antimicrobial efficiency and influence on the food constituents (Akabas and Ozdemir, 2006; Zhao et al., 2005). In all evaluated UMI-77 supplier ozone concentrations, there was a reduction in the initial quantities of β-carotene over the entire exposure period of seven hours. The percent decay of β-carotene after seven hours was 17.2%, 78.0%, 99.0% and 99.8%,

for initial ozone concentrations of 0.80, 1.14, 1.49 and 2.54 ppm, respectively. Fig. 1 presents the β-carotene decay curves as a function of the initial ozone concentration. A trend of sigmoid shapes is observed, except for the concentration of 0.80 ppm. This type of shape is typical for some kinetic models of carotenoid losses during storage and food processing (Limbo, Torri, & Piergiovanni, 2007; Goldman, Horev, & Saguy, 1983). The three distinct regions are known as the induction period; the main region, in which the reaction is fast; and, finally, a region of low decay rates. In foods, degradation reactions of the different components usually follow zero order or first order kinetic models. For β-carotene

in foods, most papers report first order kinetics. On the other way, zero order kinetics were reported by several authors for β-carotene decay in organic buy SCR7 solvents and in aqueous media, as, for instance, in the following: ozone and oxygen reactions of carotenoids in aqueous systems (Henry, Catignani & Schwartz, 1998); the reaction of β-carotene with oxygen in toluene (El-Tinay and Chichester, 1970); the oxidation of carotenoids in Thiamet G cyclohexane (Minguez-Mosquera and Jaren-Galan,

1995); the decomposition of β-carotene by UV radiation in dichloromethane solution (Gao, Deng, & Kispert, 2005); and the thermal degradation of carotenoids in aqueous media (Kanasawud and Crouzet, 1990). In the present work, a zero order kinetic model was observed in the four cases, according to the following equation: equation(I) C=Co-kt,C=Co-kt,where: C = β-carotene concentration at time t; C0 = initial β-carotene concentration; K = rate constant of reaction; and t = time (h). The rate constants for the main region of the curves ranged between 0.8 and 6.3 ppm h−1, for initial ozone concentrations of 0.80 and 2.54 ppm, respectively. All of the double bonds which are present in the chain of the carotenoid molecules are potential sites for the occurrence of the reactions with ozone, leading to a large variety of oxidation products. Although the carbonyl compounds and epoxides are the most cited in the literature as oxidation products of β-carotene, in the present study compounds from other classes, such as acids and hydroxy aldehydes, were also proposed. Table 1 presents the main oxidation products in the experiments of β-carotene ozonolysis in solution, tentatively identified through their [M–H]− fragment in their mass spectra.

Pregnant women who reported living in the United States for their

Pregnant women who reported living in the United States for their entire lives had 38% (95% CI: − 0.1, 89.3; p = 0.05) and 35% (95% CI: 2.6, 78.0; p = 0.03) higher uncorrected and specific gravity-corrected Panobinostat manufacturer urinary BPA concentrations, respectively, compared with women who reported living in the United States for 5 years or less. Additionally, women who reported drinking at least three sodas per day had approximately 58% (95% CI: 18.0, 112.1; p = 0.002) and 41% (95% CI: 9.9, 80.9; p = 0.01) higher uncorrected and specific gravity-corrected urinary BPA concentrations,

respectively, compared with women who did not consume soda. Compared with women who reported not consuming any hamburgers, women who reported eating hamburgers three times

per week or more had 20% (95% CI: − 0.2, 45.2; p = 0.05) and 17.3% (95% CI: 0.5, 36.9; p = 0.04) higher uncorrected and specific gravity-corrected urinary BPA concentrations, respectively. Lastly, we observed that for every one-hour increase in sample collection time, there was a 3% (95% CI: 0.3, 6.0; p = 0.03 and 95% CI: 0.8, 5.8; p = 0.01 for uncorrected and specific gravity-corrected concentrations, respectively) increase in urinary BPA concentrations. Results were similar when we restricted our analysis to women with no missing covariate data (i.e., no imputed covariates) and when we included collection time as a categorical variable based on potential meal times (i.e., higher BPA concentrations

BMN 673 in vitro SPTLC1 were observed as samples were collected later in the day and associations with other predictor variables were largely unchanged). When we evaluated the relationship between time spent living in the United States and significant dietary predictors, we observed that there was a higher percentage of women who reported consuming sodas (> 1 soda/day vs. no sodas) and hamburgers (≥ 1 time per week vs. ≤ 1–3 times per month) in women who reported living in the United States their entire lives compared with women who had lived less time in the country (Fig. 1). We observed significantly higher BPA concentrations with longer residence in the United States among pregnant women of Mexican descent. Pregnant women who consumed more servings of soda and hamburgers also had higher BPA concentrations. Urinary BPA concentrations from samples collected twice during pregnancy varied greatly, with high within- versus between-woman variability, and seemed to be marginally higher in samples collected in the afternoon/evening hours. The higher BPA concentrations in pregnant women in our study who lived in the United States their entire lives compared with recent immigrants may reflect differences in diet that accompany U.S. acculturation.

The relevant measures of competition, site characteristics, and s

The relevant measures of competition, site characteristics, and stand statistics were also coded. The advantage of this simulator was that we could be sure that no

additional constraint was being imposed on the growth equations. Output from each of the emulated simulators was checked against the respective original simulation Selleck Metformin model output to verify that the coding was correct. To ensure identical starting conditions, the same tree input data file was used by each of the four simulators. Site factors for Prognaus and Silva were assessed in the field or obtained from the nearest meteorological station. For BWIN and Moses, site index was calculated from the yield table of Assmann and Franz PR-171 clinical trial (1965) for spruce in Arnoldstein, from the yield table “Fichte Hochgebirge” ( Marschall, 1992) for spruce in Litschau and from the yield table “Kiefer Südtirol” ( Moling, 1993) for pine in Arnoldstein and from “Kiefer Litschau” ( Marschall, 1992) for pine in Litschau. In order not to underestimate site potential

in mixed stands, top height trees were selected independent of the species according to the recommendations of Sterba (1996). In stands where a species was present, but was not part of the top height trees, top heights were derived using equations from the Austrian National Forest Inventory that relate the top height of one species to that of another species ( Vospernik, 2000). Using each of the four simulators, we then simulated stand growth in Arnoldstein and Litschau for the length of the research plot measurements, 15 and 30 years, respectively. In Arnoldstein, a diameter threshold of 10 cm was used; in Litschau the diameter threshold oxyclozanide was 5 cm. We used the observed removal and mortality and the observed ingrowth during the simulation on all plots to avoid any confounding of diameter increment, height increment, and

crown models with further submodels. We examined both individual tree values and stand values. For the stand values we compared observed and predicted height:diameter ratios of dominant trees (100 largest trees per hectare), and of the mean stem size (quadratic mean diameter and Loreýs mean height weighted by basal area) at the end of the simulation period. Table 6, Table 7 and Table 8 show the observed and simulated dbh, height, and height:diameter ratios of Arnoldstein and Litschau, their mean, standard deviation, and the minimum and maximum values observed and predicted by the growth simulators. Deviations of the average predicted dbh for each of the growth simulators from the observed dbh range from 0.2 to 4.

H  pylori-induced gastric mucosal injury and inflammation are med

H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal injury and inflammation are mediated by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin

(IL)-8 and IL-1β as well as inflammatory enzymes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Transcription of these inflammatory mediators is regulated by the oxidant-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB [6], [7], [8], [9] and [10]. NF-κB is an inducible transcription factor composed of p50/p65 (heterodimer) or p50 (homodimer) [11]. NF-κB is retained in the cytoplasm by binding to the inhibitory protein IκBα. Extracellular stimuli trigger rapid degradation of IκBα by proteasomes, allowing NF-κB to translocate into the nucleus and bind U0126 to the DNA sites of target genes, including IL-8, IL-1β, and iNOS [12]. Therefore, degradation of IκBα represents activation of NF-κB. H. pylori-elicited neutrophils produce ROS, which subsequently injure gastric mucosal cells [13]. ROS cause peroxidation of membrane lipids, thus increasing the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in the damaged tissues. We previously demonstrated that LPO production increases in parallel with IL-8

production in H. pylori-infected cells [7]. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is more abundantly expressed in neutrophils than Selleckchem GSK2656157 other cells and thus, is used as a biomarker for neutrophil infiltration [14]. In neutrophils, MPO produces hypochlorous acid from hydrogen peroxide and chloride anion during respiratory bursts. Furthermore, it oxidizes tyrosine to form tyrosyl radicals using hydrogen peroxide. Both hypochlorous acid and tyrosyl radicals

cause lipid peroxidation sequences [15]. Therefore, high levels of LPO and increased MPO activity could reflect oxidative damage and inflammatory responses of cells. Korean Red Ginseng, which is the steamed root of a 6-year-old Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer), is used in Asian countries as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including inflammatory disorders Casein kinase 1 [16], [17] and [18]. The most effective components of Korean Red Ginseng are triterpeneglysides known as ginsenosides [19]. Ginsenosides have anti-inflammatory [20] and [21] and anticancer effects [22]. An in vitro study showed that Korean Red Ginseng inhibited adhesion of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells [23]. Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) inhibits H. pylori-induced oxidative damage in gastric epithelial cells [24] and [25]. Previously we showed hepatoprotective effects of Korean Red Ginseng in rats and mouse liver, which may be contributed by its antioxidant activity [26] and [27]. Therefore, the antioxidant or anti-inflammatory effects of RGE, containing ginsenosides, may protect gastric mucosa from inflammation caused by H. pylori infection. In the present study, we investigated whether RGE protects against H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils. Animal models for H.

There were 8 cases of Hendra virus spillovers into horses in 2012

There were 8 cases of Hendra virus spillovers into horses in 2012 (Anonymous, 2012b) and a further two cases of Hendra virus infection in horses in early 2013 (Anonymous, 2013b). In all, a total of 42 Hendra virus spillover events have occurred since 1994 and 28 of these have occurred in just the past 2 years. Likewise, following the Malaysian outbreak in 1998, nearly annual outbreaks of Nipah virus infection, occurring primarily in Bangladesh but also India have occurred since 2001. The most recent

outbreak occurred in early 2013, with apparently 10 fatalities of 12 cases (Anonymous, 2013c). Compared to the original Malaysian outbreak, these Nipah virus spillovers have been smaller in case number, however the fatality rates in people overall have been notably higher, ranging from 75–100%. Importantly, direct transmission of Nipah virus from selleck chemicals llc bats to humans and significant human-to-human transmission have also been documented during outbreaks in India and check details Bangladesh. The epidemiological details of the spillovers of both

Hendra virus and Nipah virus into people since their emergence and recognition have recently been reviewed and summarized in detail (Luby and Gurley, 2012). There have been an estimated 582 cases of Nipah virus infection with 315 human fatalities (Anonymous, 2013c, Luby and Gurley, 2012, Luby et al., 2009 and Pallister et al., 2011a). The natural reservoir hosts of Hendra virus and Nipah virus are several species of pteropid fruit bats among which ASK1 they are not known to cause disease (Halpin et al., 2011). However, Hendra and Nipah viruses possess an exceptionally broad species tropism and both natural and experimental infections have demonstrated their capacity to cause disease which can often be fatal in horses, pigs, cats, dogs, ferrets, hamsters, guinea pigs, monkeys, and humans, spanning 6 mammalian Orders (reviewed in (Geisbert

et al., 2012)). In disease susceptible animal hosts and people, Nipah virus and Hendra virus cause a systemic infection that is characterized as a wide-spread vasculitis and endothelial cell tropism. Though this pathology is not unique to these henipaviruses, an understanding of Hendra and Nipah virus cellular tropism on the molecular level has provided an explanation to this disease feature which includes the appearance of syncytia, thrombosis, ischemia and necrosis, with parenchymal cell infection and associated pathology in many major organ systems, and prominently in the brain and lung (reviewed in (Weingartl et al., 2009 and Wong and Ong, 2011)). The major involvement of the lung and brain in Hendra and Nipah virus infection often manifests as an acute severe respiratory syndrome, encephalitis or a combination of both.

Therefore, data obtained from 20 individuals were analyzed For i

Therefore, data obtained from 20 individuals were analyzed. For inter-rater Dolutegravir cost reliability and concurrent validity, 17 subjects were initially recruited, of whom five had abnormal pulmonary function tests. Therefore, 12 individuals had their data obtained and analyzed. Table 1 presents the demographic, anthropometric and spirometric data of the two subject groups evaluated. At rest, 1570 respiratory cycles were included in the analysis, with an average (SD) of 38 (8) on the first day and 40 (9) on the second day. During exercise, 2249 respiratory cycles were analyzed,

with an individual average of 55 (19) on the first day and 57 (19) on the second day. HR during exercise on the first day was 70 (8%) of the maximum HR (220 − age). On the second day, the mean HR displayed during exercise

was 69 (9%) of the maximum. Table 2 shows the results for intra-rater reliability obtained at rest and during exercise, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the first and second days of the study for any of the variables, except for Vcw/Ti at rest. ICC values were at or above 0.75 for most variables, except for Ti/Ttot at rest. The CVME presented at or below 10% for most variables, except for Vcw at rest. For inter-rater reliability, 1098 respiratory cycles were analyzed with an average of 47 (12) per subject on the first day and 45 (10) on the second day. During exercise, 2211 respiratory DAPT cycles were analyzed, with an average of 91 (22) on the first day and 93 (22) on the second day. The HR was 65 (9%) of the maximum during exercise when subjects were evaluated by examiner 1 and 64 (7%) of the maximum when they were evaluated by

examiner 2. Table 3 shows the results for inter-rater reliability at rest and during exercise, respectively. Statistically significant differences between examiners were observed for the variables Vrcp%, Vrca%, Veecw and Veicw at rest and for Vrca%, Veecw and Veicw during exercise. ICC values were above 0.75 for most of the variables except for Resveratrol Vrcp%, Vrca%, Vrc% and Vab% during exercise. CVME was equal to or below 10% for all variables. The main results of this study shows that OEP provided good intra-rater and inter-rater reliability for the evaluation of the chest wall volumes in healthy subjects at rest and during submaximal exercise. Regarding the intra-rater reliability, the ICC values observed were higher than 0.75 at rest and during exercise for most of the variables. According to Portney and Watkins (2008), reliability is considered good when the coefficients are above 0.75. Moreover, with the exception of the variable VCW, which showed the coefficient of variation greater than 11%, this ratio was below 10% for all other variables. Only the variable Vcw/Ti at rest showed a statistically significant difference between the two days of testing.

g , Rathburn et al , 2009)? I use the existence of beaver meadows

g., Rathburn et al., 2009)? I use the existence of beaver meadows along headwater mountain streams in the Colorado Front Range to illustrate some of the ideas proposed in the previous section. Beaver (Castor canadensis in North America and C. fiber in Eurasia)

are considered ecosystem engineers that change, maintain, or create habitats by altering the availability of biotic and abiotic resources for themselves and other species ( Rosell et al., 2005). The most important ecosystem engineering undertaken by beaver is the construction and maintenance of low dams of wood and sediment. Beaver build dams on even very steep (>7% gradient) and narrow rivers, but where stream gradient is less than 3% and the valley bottom is at least two or three Vorinostat mw times the active channel width, numerous closely spaced beaver dams can create beaver meadows ( Fig. 3). Torin 1 in vitro Dams vary from 7 to 74 per km along low gradient streams, with a typical value of 10 dams per km ( Pollock et al., 2003). Beaver meadows – large, wet meadows associated with overbank flooding caused by numerous beaver dams along a stream – were first described in Rocky Mountain National Park by Ives (1942), but the term is now more widely used. A beaver dam creates a channel

obstruction and backwater that enhances the magnitude, duration and spatial extent of overbank flow (Westbrook et al., 2006). Shallow flows across topographically irregular floodplains concentrate in depressions and this, along with excavation of a network of small, winding ‘canals’ across the floodplain by beaver (Olson and Hubert, 1994), promotes an anabranching channel planform (John and Klein, 2004). Overbank flows enhance infiltration, hyporheic exchange, and a high riparian water Phospholipase D1 table (Westbrook et al., 2006 and Briggs et al., 2012). Attenuation of flood

peaks through in-channel and floodplain storage promotes retention of finer sediment and organic matter (Pollock et al., 2007) and enhances the diversity of aquatic and riparian habitat (Pollock et al., 2003 and Westbrook et al., 2011). By hydrologically altering biogeochemical pathways, beaver influence the distribution, standing stocks, and availability of nutrients (Naiman et al., 1994). Beaver ponds and meadows disproportionately retain carbon and other nutrients (Naiman et al., 1986, Correll et al., 2000 and Wohl et al., 2012). As long as beaver maintain their dams, the associated high water table favors riparian deciduous species such as willow (Salix spp.), cottonwood (Populus spp.) and aspen (Populus spp.) that beaver prefer to eat, and limits the encroachment of coniferous trees and other more xeric upland plants. Beaver thus create (i) enhanced lateral connectivity between the channel and floodplain, enhanced vertical connectivity between surface and ground water, and limited longitudinal connectivity because of multiple dams ( Burchsted et al.

, 2003) in these sandy, acid mineral soils as they posses limited

, 2003) in these sandy, acid mineral soils as they posses limited capacity to fix or adsorb organic P. The accelerated P loss from this system associated with excessive use of fire and secondary impacts mirror P dynamics in mature forest ecosystems entering late primary succession (Parfitt et al., 2005). The impact of this P loss could be significant. The open forest canopy in the spruce-Cladina forest provides limited throughfall. Phosphorus requirements for cyanobacterial N fixation are high ( Chapin et al., 1991) and feathermosses receive their P inputs from canopy throughfall ( Turetsky, 2003). These combined limitations would act as to reduce the presence and productivity of cyanobacteria

MEK inhibitor associated with feathermosses and ultimately lead to N limitation and decline in the presence and N2 fixation activity of feathermosses ( DeLuca and Zackrisson, 2007) thus limiting the capacity of the feathermosses to rebuild N capital on the spruce-Cladina forests. Extractable Mg was also notably reduced by years of burning. The mechanism for this loss is unclear as burning

would have concentrated alkaline metals in the ash layer (Neary et Enzalutamide price al., 2005) and since there was no observable effect of burning on extractable Ca or total K (see Table 3). Again, it is possible that erosion of the ash layer and net leaching of Mg after fire events would potentially reduce extractable Mg in these sandy soils. The large differences in resin adsorbed NO3− is likely due to a reduced litter inputs into the degraded forests or perhaps due to the historic frequent burning and the visible accumulation of charcoal fragments in the O horizon. Charcoal presence in the mineral soil of frequently burned forest stands was significantly lower on average than

in the spruce-Cladina forests (see above); however, charcoal would have been more recently deposited in the O horizon and mineral soil ( DeLuca and Aplet, 2008). Charcoal presence in mineral soil and the O horizon has been observed to increase net nitrification ( DeLuca et al., 2006 and DeLuca and Sala, 2006) and result in an increased presence of ammonia oxidizing bacteria ( Ball et al., 2010). Zackrisson et al. (1996) found that charcoal Loperamide expresses a capacity to adsorb organic compounds for approximately 100 years after the last fire event. This adsorption potential includes phenols and terpenes which are prevalent in forest ecosystems and have the potential to interfere with nitrification ( Uusitalo et al., 2008 and Ward et al., 1997). Therefore it is possible that the charcoal in the spruce-Cladina soils had been more recently deposited and still had the capacity to influence nitrification. Available organic C and N immobilization potential would have been greater in the reference forest given the notably deeper O horizon and greater C:N ratio which would result in more rapid immobilization of NO3−.