8 fold up regulated in larvae from the correspond ing CDH group. Less coherent results were obtained for the transcripts showing http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Erlotinib-Hydrochloride.html the highest degree of down regulation. In the cod larvae exposed to the highest concentration of chemically dispersed oil, centromere protein i, DEAH box polypeptide 35, and timeless interacting protein showed the strongest down regulation. In cod larvae exposed to the highest concentration of mechanically dispersed oil, cell division cycle associated 7, hemopexin, and chromosome 6 open reading frame 58 showed the strongest down regulation re sponse. Again, based on the degree of transcription fold changes, the microarray data suggest that mechanically dispersed oil mediated a slightly stron ger response than chemically dispersed oil.
RT qPCR analysis In order to verify the microarray results, a set of tran scripts were evaluated by RT qPCR. In general, the quantitative real time qPCR results were in line with the microarray data. Based on 9 quantified transcripts show ing significant effect analyzed with RT qPCR, the correl ation between Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the microarray data and RT qPCR was r 0. 99 for the CDH group and r 0. 98 for Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the MDH group. Figures 4 and 5 show the transcriptional levels of 16 genes quanti fied with RT qPCR. Of the evaluated transcripts, cyp1a showed to strongest response with a 64. 9 fold induction in larvae from the CDH group and a 61. 3 fold induction in larvae from the MDH group. In the medium exposure groups, cyp1a showed a 14. 1 fold in duction in larvae from the CDM group, and 18. 4 fold in duction in larvae from the MDM group.
RT qPCR data for a set of evaluated transcripts and their significance are shown in Figure 2. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Also cyp1b1 and cyp1c1 showed significant responses to dis persed oil exposure, with cyp1b1 showing a stronger re sponse than cyp1c1 in the two high exposure groups. The ahrr transcript was more strongly affected than the ahr2 transcript. The sig nificant up regulation of gst �� suggests that phase II metabolism Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries was affected in the cod larvae, while altered transcription of p53 suggest that dis persed oil exposure may have mediated an effect on DNA integrity. No significant effects of oil exposure were observed on the growth marker igf or igfbp1. Ferritin and hsp70 transcription was significantly up regulated by dispersed oil treatment, while mcm2 and cdca7 were significantly down regulated by the treatment.
Functional pathway analysis Gene set enrichment analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used for functional ana lyses of the transcriptional data. Additional file 3 shows the top ranked gene Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries sets in larvae from all ex posure groups http://www.selleckchem.com/products/wortmannin.html compared to the control group. Table 1 shows the GSEA gene sets significantly affected comparing the two high exposure groups directly. Only the top ranked gene sets are shown for each comparison.