Real-time PCR efficiencies for each reaction varied from 99% to

Real-time PCR efficiencies for each reaction varied from 99% to 109%, and the correlation coefficient was not lower than 0.99. Real-time data were collected and analyzed in Excel. The relative amount of Oxt, FosB, and

Peg3 transcripts between SM/J and LG/J samples was calculated according to Vandesompele et al. (2002), as previously described (Chiavegatto et al. 2010). The following genes were analyzed as controls: cyclophilin A (peptidylprolyl isomerase A: Ppia), hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (Hprt1), and beta-actin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Actb). Primers for candidate and control genes were designed in different exons when possible (Table 2), according to criteria detailed elsewhere (Bibancos et al. 2007). Table 2 Forward and reverse primers sequences for hypothalamic RNA selleck expression Statistical analysis Behavioral data were compared using Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a two-tailed Student’s t test, and the associations among nominal variables were tested by cross tabulation using a Pearson χ2 test and ϕ coefficient in SYSTAT 10.0. The base-calling

quality for Oxt, FosB, and Peg3 was visually inspected using Chromas software ( Forward and reverse sequences for each gene region were manually evaluated, aligned, and compared Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between SM/J and LG/J strains. These analyses were also performed using the BioEdit Sequence Alignment Editor (Hall 1999). The GenBank (NCBI) accession numbers for SM/J and LG/J gene sequences are, respectively, “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”HQ679943″,”term_id”:”371444794″HQ679943

and “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”HQ679944″,”term_id”:”371444796″HQ679944 (Oxt), “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”HQ679939″,”term_id”:”371444787″HQ679939 and “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”HQ679940″,”term_id”:”371444791″HQ679940 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (FosB), “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”HQ679941″,”term_id”:”371444792″HQ679941 and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”HQ679942″,”term_id”:”371444793″HQ679942 (Peg3). The association between maternal care (absence or presence) and directly genotypes for the exon 9 Peg3 marker in F2 females was investigated using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA)-–General Linear Model in SAS, v.9.0 (SAS, 2004). Transcript quantities were tested for a normal distribution AV-951 (Kolmogorov–Smirnov test) and compared using a two-tailed Student’s t test (GraphPad InStat® version 3.05, San Diego, CA). Data were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) or median and range. Differences were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05. Results LG/J females have poorer maternal performance when compared to SM/J females SM/J and LG/J females display distinctive levels of maternal performance (Fig. 2). Although both females usually built a prepartum nest and maintained it after giving birth, only SM/J mothers displayed a more sophisticated postpartum nest (ϕ= 0.

In the current study, we subcultured the primary cells in order t

In the current study, we subcultured the primary cells in order to obtain astrocytes at high purity, thus, this may potentially change their phenotypes. At present, the effect of microglia on myelination is largely unknown. Considering that microglia can enhance OL differentiation and support cell survival (Pang et al. 2000, 2010; Nicholas et al. 2001), it is readily to postulate that microglia are beneficial to myelination, although direct evidence is lacking. To the best of our knowledge, the current Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical study is

the very first to demonstrate that MCDM could enhance in vitro myelination. Our previous study has shown that, similar to in vivo, compact myelin sheath and nodal structures were formed around axons in the coculture system, as examined by electron microscopy (Pang et al. 2012), suggesting that the increased number Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of myelinated internodes are comparable to their in vivo counterparts. However, it is premature to conclude that microglia play a similar role in myelination in development, and/or myelin repair in certain CNS disorders. In summary, our present data reveal distinct buy inhibitor effects of ACDM and MCDM on OL development and myelination in vitro. These findings may have both physiological and pathological implications. As for the later, compromising of OL development and myelination are core features in certain neurological disorders such as white matter

damage in premature infants and multiple sclerosis in adults. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Therefore, understanding Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the basic mechanisms by which

astrocyte and microglia regulate normal OL development and myelination are essential to elucidate their pathological roles and will help to identify molecules/pathways for future intervention. Acknowledgments This work was supported partially by NIH grant 56NS054278 and by funds from the Department of Pediatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center. Conflict of Interest None declared.
Eating behavior has been shown to be a complex trait influenced by genetic and psychological factors as well as social and environmental circumstances influencing individual food full report selection, taste preferences, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Carfilzomib eating pattern, and eating behavior (Steinle et al. 2002; Grimm and Steinle 2011). A genetic contribution to individual eating behavior phenotypes has been demonstrated by heritability estimates (0.28, 0.40, and 0.23 for restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, respectively) in the Old Order Amish population, a genetically isolated Caucasian population of Central European dissent (Steinle et al. 2002). Numerous candidate gene studies support the role of genetics in eating behavior. For instance, genetic variation in TAS2R38 has been significantly associated with eating behavior disinhibition in Old Order Amish (Dotson et al. 2010a) and genetic variation in bitter taste receptors has been reported to influence glucose homeostasis (Dotson et al. 2008, 2010b). Taste perception is predominantly mediated via G-protein-coupled receptors.

The lipophilic β-blockers (eg, propranolol and metoprolol) cross

The lipophilic β-blockers (eg, propranolol and metoprolol) cross the blood-brain barrier much more easily than do nonlipophilic β-blockers (eg, atenolol), and the lipophilic

β-blockers are thought to be associated with higher rates of selleckchem neuropsychiatrie consequences. The association between the use of β-blockers and the development of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depression has long been described; yet, it remains controversial. Many case reports and several small reviews have linked propranolol with depression,7,11 and a trial by Thiessen et al12 found that treatment with propranolol was associated with higher rates of antidepressant prescriptions than with other β-blockers (both lipophilic and hydrophilic). Similarly, Hallas13 found that new propranolol prescriptions were associated with high rates of new prescriptions for antidepressants, compared with prescription of diuretics. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Further, a study that compared quality of life among patients taking capropril, enalapril, atenolol, and propranolol found that propranolol was associated with significantly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical lower scores on a global assessment of psychological functioning.14

In contrast, a randomized, controlled trial in 312 patients who received propranolol found no association between this agent and depression at 1 year.15 Furthermore, several of the trials listed above did not take into account confounding variables (eg, benzodiazepine use and frequency of outpatient visits) that were found to account for the apparent relationship between use of β-blockers and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the diagnosis of depression; in one study there was no association between use of β-blockers and depression after making this correction.16 Finally, a comprehensive review of more than 5800 patients prescribed propranolol

found that this agent was rarely associated with depressive symptoms, and that such symptoms usually only arose after long-term Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical use.17 When trials have been expanded to include use of other β-blockers,18-20 the majority of studies and reviews have found no association between β-blockers (as a class of medication) and the presence of depression. Furthermore, there has been mixed evidence that lipophilic β-blockers are more strongly associated with depression than are nonlipophilic agents.20 The most extensive analysis of the association between β-blockers and depression, however, was a meta-analysis of 15 trials (more than 35 000 patients).21 Ko and colleagues Cilengitide found that β-blockers, as a class, were not associated with a significant increase in reports of depressive symptoms; furthermore, there were no differences between outcomes following use of lipophilic and nonlipophilic agents. β-Blockers may be associated with adverse neuropsychiatrie effects other than depression. Sedation, and to a somewhat lesser degree, fatigue, have been associated with use of β-blockers, both lipophilic and hydrophilic.

First, hypogonadism, usually pharmacologically induced, is associ

First, hypogonadism, usually pharmacologically induced, is associated with depressive symptoms and low libido,52,53 and androgen replacement is often associated with improvement in mood, energy, and libido54-56 in some but not all studies, although this literature is also inconsistent.57,58 Second, some but not all studies suggest an association between low testosterone levels and depressive symptoms.59,60

Last, supraphysiological doses of androgens Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical may be associated with manic or hypomanic symptoms in some individuals,61 and hypogonadism during withdrawal from long-term anabolic steroid use may be associated with depression.61 These observations have led to numerous studies examining the effect of androgens in the treatment of depression. Earlier, open-label studies suggested that androgens may be effective for treating depression, especially in men who are hypogonadal.62-65 Recently, there have been several studies using controlled designs where testosterone was used to treat depression in men who were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hypogonadal or had low normal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical levels of testosterone. Testosterone

was administered as monotherapy or else as an adjunct to conventional antidepressants. These studies are summarized in Table VI The selleck Gefitinib findings from these studies are inconsistent, producing positive, negative, and inconclusive results.66-74 Some of these differences may be due to methodological issues as noted in Table VI although the weight of evidence would suggest that

testosterone may have some antidepressant benefits in hypogonadal men. Further study is required before definitely concluding that testosterone is a clinically useful treatment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for depression. The limited database and inconclusive findings in some studies have to be weighed against the known side effects of testosterone administration such as hypertension, gynecomastia, and polycythemia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as well as the fact that treatment emergent paranoid symptoms have been infrequently reported especially in earlier studies.62-65 The potential increased risk for prostate cancer with longterm testosterone treatment remains an unresolved issue.75,76 Table VI. Testosterone Entinostat treatment of depression Ovarian hormones The neuromodulatory effects of the ovarian steroids are well established.77-79 Substantial changes in estrogen levels can have effects on brain function and, therefore, on mood and cognition.79 The cyclic changes in gonadal steroids that occur with the menstrual cycle is one example of a period of vulnerability for psychiatric symptoms as a consequence of these fluctuations.80 It follows that depressive symptoms and depressive disorders occur at important stages of a women’s life at times when the selleck kinase inhibitor reproductive cycle is associated with changes in ovarian hormone levels, thus providing a rationale for the use of hormonal treatment for depression.

A small MRI

study found that BDD subjects, compared with

A small MRI

study found that BDD subjects, compared with healthy control participants, exhibited significantly abnormal asymmetry of the caudate nucleus, with a leftward shift in laterality quotient, as well as greater total white matter volume.96 A second small study similarly found greater white matter selleck chemical Ivacaftor volume in BDD relative to controls, in addition to smaller orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate and larger thalamic volumes.97 However, a third study found no significant volumetric differences in BDD vs healthy controls.98 A small BDD single proton-emission computed tomography study showed relative perfusion deficits in bilateral anterior Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical temporal and occipital regions and asymmetric perfusion in the parietal lobes.99 In another study, when viewing a photograph of their Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical own face vs a familiar face, BDD subjects had relative hyperactivity in left orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral head of the caudate compared with controls; frontostriatal activation correlated with aversiveness ratings of faces and BDD severity.100 These results are similar to those in OCD symptom provocation studies,101 suggesting

that BDD and OCD symptoms may possibly be mediated by the same orbitofrontal-subcortical circuit (although this study did not directly compare BDD and OCD). Cosmetic treatment for BDD A majority of individuals with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical BDD seek (71% to 76%) and receive (64% to 66%) cosmetic treatment (eg, surgical, dermatologic, or dental) for their perceived appearance flaws.102,103

In a general population sample from Germany, 7.2% of those with BDD had received cosmetic surgery, compared with only 2.8% of those without BDD.30 However, such treatment appears to only Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rarely improve overall BDD symptoms. In a study of 200 individuals with BDD, subjects retrospectively reported that only 3.6% of all treatments resulted in overall improvement in BDD.102 In another study (n=250), only 7% of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treatments (retrospectively assessed) led to overall improvement in BDD.103 Veale et al found that 81% of 50 BDD patients were Tipifarnib 192185-72-1 dissatisfied with past medical consultation or surgery.81 Such an outcome can have serious negative consequences for both patients and physicians. In the previously noted survey of cosmetic Drug_discovery surgeons, 40% of respondents indicated that dissatisfied BDD patients had threatened them physically or legally85 It is therefore important for BDD patients and their mental health providers to be aware that non-mental health interventions appear unlikely to successfully treat BDD symptoms. Pharmacotherapy Pharmacologic treatment for BDD is described in more detail elsewhere,1,26 including in a Cochrane review and a guideline from the United Kingdom’s National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) on the treatment of OCD and BDD, which recommend SRIs for the treatment of BDD.

It is difficult to imagine, based on the current data, that an im

It is difficult to imagine, based on the current data, that an improvement in survival could be observed as LNCs increase, since increasing LNCs are so closely tied to increasing

stage, and increasing stage is itself tied to worse OS. We recognize that our inability to demonstrate an improvement in survival with increasing LNCs does not preclude Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the existence of such a relationship. In fact, larger studies have provided more definitive information on this relationship (5,15). It is worth pointing out that large studies like these are crucial in detecting such phenomena since institutionally based studies would be much less likely to uncover them. Patient-level studies AZD-2281 remain important; however, because they provide more granular clinical data that when analyzed teases out the why and the how Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical behind observations from population-based studies. Combining individual institutional studies should improve the productivity of this type of study. Perhaps the most important role of these patient-level studies could be to inform and improve the population-based registries by suggesting which additional data should be collected by these organizations. The current study examines the relationship between

LNCs in resected rectal cancer Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and various clinico-pathologic factors. Higher LNCs were associated with younger age, higher stage, diagnosis in the later period of our study, and performance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of MRE. We could not demonstrate a decrease in lymph node counts among patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Examination of the relationship between lymph node counts and 5-yr OS failed to demonstrate any improvements in survival with higher LNCs. In fact, the opposite effect of higher LNCs was observed. Based on the apparent differences between rectal cancer and colon cancer, we believe separate selleck chem Enzalutamide recommendations for minimum lymph node counts should be developed, based on population-based data. We also believe that LNCs in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy should be separately analyzed to

determine appropriate quality benchmarks. Finally, recalling that LNC is not the only important factor, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Batimastat institutionally based studies should continue to identify other factors that influence outcomes after rectal cancer treatment. These factors could then be considered for inclusion in the data collection efforts of large population-based registries. Acknowledgements Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Pancreatic cytopathology is increasingly being recognized as a safe, rapid, reliable, accurate and cost effective modality in the evaluation of patients with a mass lesion. It has surpassed pancreatic wedge and core needle biopsies with their attendant increased risk of complications (fistulas, hemorrhage, and tumor seeding) as a first line pathologic investigative procedure (1). Optimal results require a dedicated approach, experience and expertise by all professionals involved.

These hormones, in addition to their

These hormones, in addition to their reproductive functions, have been shown to exhibit potent neuroregulatory effects on a range of nonreproductive behaviors including mood and cognition.37 With the discovery of the estrogen receptor in 1962 by Jensen and Jacobson, a roadmap emerged for the cellular actions of steroid hormones.37,38 Moreover, beginning with the

work of Phoenix et al in 1959, there has been evidence to suggest that perinatal manipulation of reproductive steroids may have long-term consequences on brain sensitivity to these to steroids postpuberty.37,39 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These two pieces of animal model evidence laid the early framework which implicated hormonal dysregulation in vulnerable or susceptible women as part of the underlying pathogenesis of perinatal depression. More recent work by Block

et al demonstrates that, despite normal CHIR99021 FDA levels of reproductive hormones, women with PPD have an abnormal response to changes in reproductive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical steroid levels (estrogen and progesterone).40 Additionally, there is increasing evidence that abnormalities in HPA axis activity play a key role in the etiology of both MDD as well as PPD.41-45 Estrogen and progesterone have profound interactions with the HPA Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical axis and may therefore trigger the HPA axis abnormalities in susceptible women. Striking hormonal changes take place in the transition from pregnancy to the postpartum period.46 The third trimester of pregnancy is characterized by high estrogen and progesterone levels and a hyperactive HPA axis (normal during pregnancy) with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical high plasma cortisol47 which is stimulated in part by the high levels of estrogen and progesterone.44 At the time of childbirth and during the transition

to the postpartum period, estrogen and progesterone rapidly decline, and there is blunted HPA axis activity due to suppressed hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion.43 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The suppression may be due to the length of time it takes for the hypertropic adrenal cortexes (due to the hyperstimulated state during pregnancy), to progressively downsize and gradually return to normal.43 As in nonpuerperal MDD, the HPA axis appears disturbed in women with PPD. Furthermore, although the trigger for PPD is likely heritable, Drug_discovery the human and animal literature suggest that the onset of PPD is determined by the contributions of both genetics and life events.48,49 Thus, it is important to briefly review the normal functioning of the HPA axis and how this differs in depressed (non-PPD) patients as compared with women with PPD. In a normal HPA axis, the delivery of CRH from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus triggers the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary and, sellekchem consequently, cortisol from the adrenal cortex.

In the former, we provide

In the former, we provide ALK phosphorylation examples of the complex stimuli that can be performed with NeuroRighter, and present descriptive results. In the latter, we demonstrate and discuss some of the issues concerning optically induced artifacts. DESIGN DESIGN CRITERIA We designed our optoelectrophysiology system to adapt the in vivo capabilities

of NeuroRighter into the optogenetic purview. In so doing, we wished to maintain the standards established in its original design – that the system be (1) inexpensive, interfacing with commercially available hardware as well as custom-designed solutions; (2) maintain the high spatial and temporal resolution required in electrophysiology; (3) function robustly in a number of different experimental environments; and (4) be open-source. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE FOR OPTICAL STIMULATION While many of efforts with optogenetics relied on the use of lasers (Yizhar et al., 2011; Armstrong et al., 2013), high-intensity light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have increasingly proven an attractive alternative, particularly for in vivo experiments (Cardin, 2012; Nguyen et al., 2014). Lasers tend

to be large and cumbersome, and many setups require careful collimation and alignment for proper function and maintenance of consistent output within and between experiments. These designs are sensitive to the slight perturbations generated from connections

to awake and behaving animals. Collimated LEDs, however, are compact, robust, and readily portable, making them easy to integrate into behavioral experiments. In addition, LEDs have a more precise input/output relationship than similarly-priced lasers. LED luminance output can be well approximated by a logarithmic or linear function with respect to input current. In contrast, similarly priced DPSS lasers have a non-linear sigmoidal relationship with input voltage (Figure ​Figure1C1C; Cardin, 2012). Furthermore, the light intensity generated by Anacetrapib these lasers can be unstable and demonstrate transient peaks and fluctuations (Cardin, 2012). The output intensity of LEDs, in contrast, is much more stable and better approximates a square wave, with much less variation over time. Indeed, we have determined that the variability in 465 nm Blue LED output intensity is less than that of a comparable-cost laser 475 nm DPSS Laser (Shanghai Dream Lasers, China; Figure ​Figure1C1C). While the standard deviation of the laser intensity output could be over 10% of the maximum output, the standard deviation of the LED intensity output was small enough to be obscured by the datapoint marker. It should be noted that the outputs of lasers and LEDs are influenced by temperature as well.

First, the role

of Sir2 as a key regulator of yeast lifes

First, the role

of Sir2 as a key regulator of yeast lifespan was challenged.24 Second, at that time, no ortholog for PNC1 in other organisms was found. Therefore, the answer as to whether this model is unique only for yeast remains elusive. The first uncertainty about the role Sir2 plays in modulating replicative longevity in yeast via regulation of the rate of ERC quality control formation arose from the observation that the lifespan extension by overexpressing Sir2 was strain-dependent.24 In addition, it was noticed that in the BY4742 yeast strain, mutation of fob1, which blocks the formation of ERCs, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or Sir2 overexpression, together with DR has a cumulative effect on yeast lifespan.24 Put simply, DR extended the lifespan of fob1 or sir2 double mutation. Thus, at least in this yeast strain the effect of DR cannot be Sir2 or ERC-dependent, as an additional increase of lifespan was seen with each treatment. In response to these claims other groups have shown that in the absence of Sir2 another yeast sirtuin, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Hst2, takes over and regulates the positive effect of DR on Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical yeast lifespan via ERC formation.25 However, this was not the end of the debate. Soon after, two researchers published that in the BY4742 yeast strain, double mutation of sir2 and fob1 along with a mutation in one of the hst isoforms hst1/hst2/hst4 has no significant effect on the yeast lifespan.26

Treatment with DR extended the lifespan of these combinations. Notably, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the role of Hst3 in this study was complex. Mutations in hst3 only, or triple mutation sir2hst3fob1,

have a small but significant effect on yeast lifespan. However, once combined with hst4 mutation, yeast lifespan was significantly reduced. Moreover, DR was not able to extend the lifespan of yeast carrying mutations in fob1 and all yeast sirtuins. Interestingly, the authors did not report whether DR can extend the lifespan Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in hst3hst4 double mutations. Thus, the role of hst3 in DR response remains elusive. Taken together, despite extensive research, the question whether Sir2 or other sirtuins regulate yeast lifespan Brefeldin_A during DR via controlling ERCs formation is still under debate. Recent studies have reported that Sir2 regulates yeast replicative lifespan by additional rDNA-independent mechanisms. During cytokinesis, the majority of proteins damaged due to oxidative stress are maintained in the mother cell. Nystrom and his associates showed that Sir2 is required for this asymmetric inheritance, and absence of Sir2 results in an inheritance of oxidatively damaged proteins and reduced selleck chemical Dasatinib capacity to respond to oxidative stress in daughter cells.27 Others have shown that an age-associated decrease in Sir2 protein levels is accompanied by an increase in histone H4 K16 acetylation and regions.

Therefore, the control, monitoring and

Therefore, the control, monitoring and analysis of the processes accompanying EBW requires analysis of some secondary signal parameters, such as secondary electron or ion emission, optical emission, X-rays, etc.Popular focus-control methods include systems for measuring the secondary emission parameters while scanning the joint being welded [10�C12]. Sharp focusing is determined based on the maximum amplitude of the secondary signal��s peaks when the beam crosses the joint. Similar to this system are the raster scanning systems that register the signal of reflected electrons [12]. These methods allow the electronic beam focus to be preset at low power before welding starts. However, for operating welding modes, the focusing current should be adjusted experimentally depending on the materials, thickness and types of electron beam guns used.Other control methods are based on the correlation between secondary emission parameters in the welding area and the specific power of the electron beam. In [13], X-rays are used to control the EBW parameters. In [14,15], there is a description of the correlation between focusing mode and the average values and amplitudes of the reflected and secondary currents, ionic current, as well as X-ray density. These results helped Mitsubishi Electric Corporation develop automatic electronic-beam focus control systems [15], which use electronic-beam with focusing control at low power as reference points.One of the specific processes caused by the impact of the dense electron beam to the metal during EBW is the formation of plasma in the operational area [16�C21]. The parameters of the plasma are closely connected with the electron beam thermal effect on the metal being welded. In [22�C27], plasma current parameters are suggested for electron beam focusing control.All the above methods use extreme correlations between the secondary emissions and the focusing coil current. These correlations are characterized by dead zones and two values of the focusing coil current that ensure similar signal parameters. That is why the adaptive electronic-beam focus stabilization systems support low-frequency scanning [28], which significantly limits their performance and welding joint quality.In recent years, control and monitoring of electron beam and laser-based welding has become more and more popular [29�C38]. Laser technologies and electron beam welding are based on similar principles. New research opportunity provided by modern signal processing is finding an increased interest by researchers. Older methods only allowed inspection of amplitude ratios, while today we can analyze the structure of the secondary current signal in the plasma during EBW [39,40].