A near 100% specificity has been reported
with the combination of both techniques. Although we cannot rule out the possibility of the IHA result being a false negative, we believe that artemisinin treatment delayed our patient’s seroconversion to 7.5 months, reflecting an absence of active ova-directed immune response at 5.5 months and likely Selleck Fluorouracil a low level of ova production at this time. To our knowledge, seroconversion after 6 months has not been previously reported, and thus, it may be reasonable to consider longer seroconversion windows for returning travelers exposed to other active antiparasitic medications. In conclusion, returning travelers with Schistosoma infection can be asymptomatic and late seroconversion (>6 months) may occur, as was the case in our patient. In these circumstances, a negative serology should not exclude the diagnosis. Epidemiological history of fresh water contact as well as previous antiparasitic treatment is highly relevant. Invasive
techniques for diagnosis should not be routinely considered, especially in asymptomatic patients. Final diagnosis can be difficult, and thus if suspicion is strong, an empirical therapeutic test should be considered. We thank Dr Carlos Chaccour for his input on the development of learn more this manuscript. We also thank Prof Paul Miller for help with the language editing of the manuscript. The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“Background. Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended to people traveling to countries where the disease is endemic. Until recently, people originating from developing countries were considered to be “naturally” immunized. Because of improving socioeconomic conditions, hepatitis A incidence has decreased Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in most previously highly endemic countries during the last three decades, especially in the younger age groups. Methods. We analyzed hepatitis
A seroprevalence of 989 travelers who had been born and lived at least 1 year in a developing country, wanted to travel to a hepatitis A endemic area, and consulted at the vaccination center of the Institut Pasteur of Paris between September 1, 2008 and February 28, 2010. Results. Hepatitis A serology results were available for 646 subjects. Overall seroprevalence was 82.4%. A total of 90, 82.6, 81.2, 68.4, 56.9, and 50% of people of sub-Saharan African, Near and Middle Eastern, North African, Asian, Latin American, and Eastern European origin had hepatitis A antibodies, respectively. The difference in seroprevalence according to the continent of origin, age, and length of stay in an endemic country was significant (p < 0.0001). More than 75% of seronegatives and less than 50% of seropositives were younger than 36 years. Almost three quarters of the positive group (while less than half of the negative group) lived longer than 18 years in a developing country.