This finding raises the possibility that IVIG blocks MMP activities at the interface
between the blood stream and CNS. With in situ zymography, we also observed that gelatinase activities were expressed mainly in astrocytes in the inflamed spinal cord of control rats and that this expression was attenuated by the treatment. These findings provide useful information to set optimal conditions for IVIG treatment of MS and to obtain more beneficial effects. “
“We report four cases of biopsy-proven B-cell-rich primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). The mean age of the patients was 29 years (range, 23–37 years). The patients suffered from unilateral weakness (n = 2), seizure (n = 1), and hypersomnia, anorexia and confusion (n = 1). The vital signs and the results of laboratory Sirolimus tests were within normal limits in all the four cases except erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). ESR was elevated in one patient and CRP was elevated in two patients. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans revealed Belnacasan in vitro single (n = 2) or multiple (n = 2) irregularly enhancing lesions. Radiological studies initially indicated tumors such
as glioma (n = 2) or lymphoma (n = 1), except in one case, in which the radiological analysis indicated vasculitis or demyelinating disease. All the cases involved both medium-sized (50–250 µm in diameter) and small-sized vessels (20–49 µm in diameter). The vascular, perivascular PDK4 and parenchymal lymphocytes were polymorphous; however, CD20-positive B-cells were predominated in blood vessels while the CD8-positive T-cells infiltrated predominantly in brain parenchyma. Therefore, our patients revealed B-cell dominant lymphocytic vasculitis. Two patients who underwent active treatment (corticosteroid alone or with cyclophosphamide) showed remarkable clinical and radiological improvement but two patients still have initial neurological symptoms, namely, confusion and newly developed seizures, respectively,
during the 19–101-month follow-up periods; this effect can be attributed to irreversible brain damage. Therefore, although early brain biopsy may be associated with histopathologic diagnostic pitfalls, it is a mandatory procedure for obtaining a confirmative diagnosis as well initiating early therapy, thereby reducing brain damage. “
“Mutations affecting the mitochondrial DNA-polymerase gamma 1 (POLG1) gene have been shown to cause Alpers-Huttenlocher disease. Ultrastructural data on brain and muscle tissue are rare. We report on ultrastructural changes in brain and muscle tissue of two sisters who were compound heterozygous for the c.2243G>C and c.1879C>T POLG1 mutations. Patient 1 (16 years) presented with epilepsia partialis continua that did not respond to antiepileptic treatment. Neuroimaging showed right occipital and bithalamic changes.