Here we defined the growth-phase-dependent transcriptomes

Here we defined the growth-phase-dependent transcriptomes

of Haemophilus ducreyi, which lacks an RpoS homolog. Compared to mid-log-phase organisms, cells harvested from the stationary phase upregulated genes encoding several virulence determinants and a homolog of hfq. Insertional inactivation of hfq altered the expression of similar to 16% of the H. ducreyi genes. Importantly, there were a significant overlap and an inverse correlation in the transcript levels of genes differentially expressed in the hfq inactivation mutant relative to its parent and the genes differentially expressed in stationary phase relative to mid-log phase in the parent. Inactivation of hfq downregulated genes in the flp-tad and lspB-lspA2 operons, which encode several virulence determinants. To comply with FDA guidelines for human inoculation FK228 cost experiments, an unmarked hfq deletion mutant was constructed and was fully attenuated for virulence in humans. Inactivation or deletion of hfq downregulated Flp1 and impaired the ability of H. ducreyi to form microcolonies, downregulated DsrA and rendered H. ducreyi serum susceptible, and downregulated LspB and LspA2, which allow H. ducreyi to resist see more phagocytosis. We propose that, in the absence of an RpoS homolog, Hfq serves as a major contributor of H. ducreyi stationary-phase

and virulence gene regulation. The contribution of Hfq to stationary-phase gene regulation may have broad implications for other organisms that lack an RpoS homolog.\n\nIMPORTANCE Pathogenic bacteria encounter a wide range of stresses in their hosts, including nutrient limitation; the ability to sense and respond to such stresses is crucial for bacterial pathogens to successfully PR-171 purchase establish an infection. Gram-negative bacteria frequently utilize the alternative sigma factor RpoS to adapt to stresses and stationary phase. However, homologs of RpoS are absent in some bacterial pathogens, including Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes chancroid and facilitates the acquisition and transmission of HIV-1. Here,

we provide evidence that, in the absence of an RpoS homolog, Hfq serves as a major contributor of stationary-phase gene regulation and that Hfq is required for H. ducreyi to infect humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing Hfq as a major contributor of stationary-phase gene regulation in bacteria and the requirement of Hfq for the virulence of a bacterial pathogen in humans.”
“Study design: Experimental trial based on the analytical study of radiographic standards of the sagittal spinal alignment in paraplegics in upright position under surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES).\n\nObjectives: To evaluate changes in radiographic standards of the sagittal spinal alignment of paraplegics under three different models of NMES used to optimize the global bipedal posture.\n\nSetting: The University Hospital Ambulatory (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil.\n\nMethods: Ten paraplegic patients were selected.

001) or during beta-arrestin-2 detection in alpha 1A-adrenoceptor

001) or during beta-arrestin-2 detection in alpha 1A-adrenoceptor precipitates

(P < 0.005). This interaction may be located to prostate smooth muscle cells, as expression of the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor was exclusively found in smooth muscle cells after immunohistochemical staining.\n\nWith beta-arrestin-2, we identified a new binding partner of the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor in human prostate smooth muscle. Binding of beta-arrestin-2 may be involved in posttranslational regulation of prostate alpha 1A-adrenoceptors.”
“Association between the rates of poor outcomes in the patient cohort with acute coronary syndrome and polymorphisms G(-174)C in the IL6 gene and G(-1082)A in the IL10 gene were determined. In total, 1145 patients hospitalized for coronary artery disease to cardiological hospitals of Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Wnt inhibition Chelyabinsk, Perm, Stavropol, and Rostov-on-Don were examined. The mean observation period was 9.10 +/- 5.03 months (maximal, 18 months). Analysis of the survival of the patients with acute coronary syndrome that carried allele A has

demonstrated that the presence of IL10 gene polymorphism G(-1082)A is associated with more frequent poor outcomes as compared with GG genotype. The survival time to endpoint for the carriers of GA and AA genotypes was 11.68 +/- 0.67 months versus 12.69 AG-881 supplier +/- 0.65 months for the carriers of GG genotype in IL10 gene (chi(2) = 4.13, p = 0.042). As for the IL6 gene polymorphism G(-174)C, survival rate analysis did not detect any significant association with the risk for poor outcome. However, joint analysis of these polymorphisms in both genes has demonstrated that characteristic of the patients with acute coronary syndrome that carry

GG genotype of IL6 gene and GA and AA genotypes of IL10 is a higher rate of poor outcomes (time to endpoint, 11.01 +/- ARS-1620 supplier 1.24 months) as compared with the carriers of IL6 gene CC and CG genotypes and IL10 gene GG genotype (time to endpoint, 13.28 +/- 0.83 months (xi(2) = 10.23, p = 0.017). These data suggest that the genes IL6 and IL10, whose products are involved in the control of inflammatory response, play an important role by increasing the probability of poor outcomes in the patients with acute coronary syndrome.”
“In 1996, a link was identified between Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in men, and alterations in the gene encoding frataxin (FXN). Initial studies revealed that the disease is caused by a unique, most frequently biallelic, expansion of the GAA sequence in intron 1 of FXN. Since the identification of this link, there has been tremendous progress in understanding frataxin function and the mechanism of FRDA pathology, as well as in developing diagnostics and therapeutic approaches for the disease.

These results demonstrate that endogenous testosterone production

These results demonstrate that endogenous testosterone production in normal male rats and testosterone exogenously administered to oophorectomized SU5402 inhibitor females significantly increases TNF production and proapoptotic

and profibrotic signaling during renal obstruction, resulting in increased apoptotic cell death, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and renal dysfunction.”
“Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important neuronal element involved in cardiovascular regulation. Since elevated plasma levels of NPY have been observed in numerous pathological situations, this study aimed to determine whether long-term elevated plasma concentrations of NPY could result in aberrant baroreflex sensitivity. Mini-osmotic pump containing NPY (85 mu g per 30 days) was subcutaneously implanted between scapulae Selleck AZD1480 in male rats for 4 months. The rats treated with NPY showed

the following characters compared with control group: (1) attenuated heart rate responding to the increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) induced by phenylephrine, but enhanced heart rate responding to the decreases in MABP induced by sodium nitroprusside; (2) decreased protein levels of substance P (SP) and GluR2, while increased the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA(A)R) in brainstem; (3) abdominal obesity indicated by increased body weight and accumulated fat mass in peritoneal cavity; (4) significant increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein this website levels in the periphery. These findings indicate that

long-term NPY administration in the periphery leads to abnormal baroreflex sensitivity due, at least in part, to the down-regulated expression of SP/GluR2 and elevated expression of GABA(A)R in both protein and RNA levels, which indicate the alternations in glutamate function and GABA action in the nucleus tractus solitarii in NPY-treated rats. Furthermore, long-term NPY administration results in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“MenD catalyzes the thiamin diphosphate-dependent decarboxylative carboligation of alpha-ketoglutarate and isochorismate. The enzyme is essential for menaquinone biosynthesis in many bacteria and has been proposed to be an antibiotic target. The kinetic mechanism of this enzyme has not previously been demonstrated because of the limitations of the UV-based kinetic assay. We have reported the synthesis of an isochorismate analogue that acts as a substrate for Mena The apparent weaker binding of this analogue is advantageous in that it allows accurate kinetic experiments at substrate concentrations near K(m). Using this substrate in concert with the dead-end inhibitor methyl succinylphosphonate, an analogue of alpha-ketoglutarate, we show that MenD follows a ping-pong kinetic mechanism.


“Preparation of deuterium-labelled perhexiline from an uns


“Preparation of deuterium-labelled perhexiline from an unsaturated analogue was performed via reduction with deuterium gas and PtO2 in acetic acid. Low incorporation was observed when using acetic acid as solvent (most abundant mass peak was M-D0(+)), but

when changing the solvent to deuterium-labelled acetic acid, e.g. buy Kinase Inhibitor Library acetic acid-OD) or acetic acid-d(4), a higher incorporation was observed (most abundant mass peak was M-D8(+)). Using hydrogen gas instead of deuterium gas with deuterium-labelled acetic acid, high levels of deuterium incorporation were observed (most abundant mass peak was MD 5). An attempt to reduce a precursor with a fully deuterated pyridine to obtain perhexiline with a higher content of deuterium failed.”
“Fourteen newly synthesized derivatives of indophenazine 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoline bearing benzofuran were prepared from benzofuran chalcones with indophenazine hydrazide through cycloaddition reaction. All the compounds were screened for their in vitro and in vivo antitubercular activity against drug resistant and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)RV. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) were estimated and compared with rifampicin and gatifloxacin standard drugs. Nitro group containing at ortho 5j, meta 5e, furan ring containing 5m and ortho 5i, para 5h chloro containing compounds were exhibited significant in vitro, in vivo antitubercular

activity against standard drugs.”
“Purpose: To investigate the CAL-101 reproducibility of imaging the foveal microstructures of healthy eyes with 3 spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) machines: Cirrus (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc.), Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering), and Topcon (Topcon 3D OCT-1000 Mark II).\n\nDesign: Cross-sectional, prospective, noninterventional study.\n\nParticipants:

Images were obtained for 50 eyes of 50 healthy undilated volunteers without ocular pathology in a clinical setting.\n\nMethods: The fovea of all subjects was imaged using Cirrus, Spectralis, and Topcon.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: Among the 4 hyperreflective GSK2126458 mouse bands in the outer subfovea on SD-OCT imaging, the innermost band (external limiting membrane [ELM] band), the second innermost band (second band), and the third innermost band (third band) were classified as “continuous,” ” disrupted,” or “none” by 2 independent raters. Weighted beta-coefficient analysis and/or Fisher exact test were used to compare interrater, intermachine, and intramachine agreement measurements. The sensitivity of each machine was also evaluated.\n\nResults: The group of 50 subjects consisted of 22 men and 28 women, with an average age of 31.4 years (range, 21-52 years). Interrater agreement for 3 bands was high (kappa = 0.876, 0.738, and 0.774) with Cirrus, Spectralis, and Topcon, respectively. The sensitivity of each machine was high for the ELM band (0.92, 0.98, and 0.

To determine what factors predict an “excellent” clinical residen

To determine what factors predict an “excellent” clinical resident and a successful in-service test taker, we analyzed 10 years of urology resident files.\n\nPARTICIPANTS AND STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of 29 urology residents at Washington University graduating from July 2000 to July 2009. Medical student applications and interview evaluations were compared with future performance as a general surgical intern and then as a urology resident,

in terms of clinical performance and in-service examination scores.\n\nRESULTS: Of 29 residents, based on clinical evaluations over 4 years of urology residency, 12 were “excellent,” 17 “average and needing improvement.” “Excellent” residents had higher applicant rank submitted to the “match” (7.2 vs. 12.1, p = 0.04) and better letters of recommendation (3.0 vs. 2.5, 0.018). “Excellent” residents also this website had better evaluations as C59 concentration an intern (3.9 vs 2.7, p < 0.001). “Good” urology in-service examination test takers compared with “below average” test takers noted higher rank on the match list (7.8 vs 12.1, p = 0.04), better quality med school (2.6 vs 2.0;

p = 0.002), higher USMLE scores (92.5 vs 86.6% tile, p = 0.02), American Board of Surgery in-training examination (ABSITE) score (58.6 vs 37.2% tile, p = 0.04), and were more likely to pass the board examination (100% vs 76.9%, p = 0.03). Residents with higher clinical evaluations were also more likely to go into fellowships (83.3% vs 16.2%, OR = 23.3) and academic careers (41.6 vs 11.1%, OR = 5.71).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Performance as a surgery intern predicts future performance as a GU Resident. “Good” test takers as medical students and as interns continue to test well as GU residents. Early identification, intervention, and mentoring while still an intern

are essential. Selection criteria we currently use to select GU residents are surprisingly predictive. (J Surg 70: 138-143. (C) 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.)”
“Immunotherapy with wasp allergen leads to a variety of specific immunological changes. It is unknown, however, whether unspecific effects also occur, and which parameter shifts might indicate Staurosporine supplier treatment success. Therefore, data of patients who had completed immunotherapy with wasp venom were analysed retrospectively for a change in the following parameters after therapy: threshold of skin tests with wasp venom, total and specific serum IgE, specific serum IgG and IgG4, and binding of IgE and IgG4 to major wasp venom allergens. Reactions to field stings were explored. A significant increase in the skin test threshold and a significant decrease in total serum IgE, specific serum IgE and major wasp allergens binding IgE were found. Concentrations of specific serum IgG and IgG4 increased.

According to spontaneous pregnancy reduction (SPR), this study in

According to spontaneous pregnancy reduction (SPR), this study included singleton originating from twins [(2 - bigger selleck chemicals than 1) group] or from triplets [(3 - bigger than 1) group], and twins originating from triplets [(3 - bigger than 2) group]. According to SPR time, this study included smaller than = 8 week, 8-18 week

and bigger than = 18 week’s groups. Outcome measures were SPR rate, preterm rate, mean birth weight and the rates of low birth weight and very low birth weight. Results: SPR rate was higher in triplets group than in twins group, in frozen-thawed cycles than in fresh cycles, in the patients bigger than = 35 years than in the patients smaller than 35 years (all P smaller than 0.05). Compared with smaller than = 8 week group, preterm rate was significantly increased in 8-18 week group (P smaller than 0.05). Pregnancy outcomes were better in (2 – bigger than 1) group than in twins group, in (3 – bigger than 1) group than in triplets group (all P smaller than 0.05). After multi-fetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR), the mean birth weight was higher and low birth weight was lower in

SPR group than in only MFPR group (all P smaller than 0.05). Conclusion: SPR rate is related to age and the initial number of gestational sacs. Both SPR and MFPR can improve Oligomycin A order pregnancy outcomes. The later the SPR occurs, the worse the neonatal outcomes are. Due to the possibility of SPR, it is necessary to appropriately delay MFPR until 8 gestational weeks.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) on the proliferation, migration and invasion

of neuroblastoma selleckchem (NB) cells and the mechanisms involved. We here initially used the real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect the expression of HIF-1 alpha and components of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway in NB cells and human specimens. Subsequently, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were analyzed using the cell counting assay, wound healing assay and Transwell system in two types of human NB cell lines, SH-SY5Y and IMR32. In addition, the role of HIF-1 alpha in NB cells growth was determined in a xenograft nude mouse model. We found that the level of HIF-1 alpha was significantly upregulated during NB progression and was associated with the expression of two components of SHH signaling, SHH and GLI1. We next indicated that the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of SH-SY5Y and IMR32 cells were significantly inhibited by HIF-1 alpha knockdown, which was mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting against its mRNA. Furthermore, the growth of NB cells in vivo was also suppressed by HIF-1 alpha inhibition. Finally, the pro-migration and proliferative effects of HIF-1 alpha could be reversed by disrupting SHH signaling.

The effects of the KA on the sleep time were observed using a hyp

The effects of the KA on the sleep time were observed using a hypnosis test, and the tail-withdrawal latency was analyzed using the tail-withdrawal test. In the hypnosis test, KA (2.5, 5 or 10 ng; icy administered) treatment had no distinctive effects on the sleep time of mice treated with emulsified inhalation anesthetics. In the tail-withdrawal test, KA (0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 ng; it administered) treatment significantly and dose-dependently decreased the tail-withdrawal

latency of mice treated with emulsified anesthetics. These results suggested that KA receptors may modulate the analgesic but not hypnotic effects induced by emulsified en flurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane.”
“Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND), a genetic disorder associated with motor and psychiatric disturbance and self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is Caused by a complete deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine Staurosporine cell line phosphoribosyltransferase

(HPRT). The connection between enzyme deficiency and neurological involvement is still unclear. Evidence exists for a role of basal ganglia dysfunction with decreased dopamine and excess serotonin Sapanisertib striatal content. In this Study, we investigate the role of serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) in the brains of HPRT gene knock-out mice, a model of LND. HTR2C expression is analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using SYBR-green detection methods. The percentage of edited HTR2C mRNA was determined by direct sequencing of amplification products of the region containing the editing sites. We found a 55% increase in the expression of HTR2C gene but no significant difference in mRNA editing levels between knock-out and control mice. The above alteration found in HPRT-deficient mice is similar to

those found in other animal models used to Study aggressive and self injurious behaviour. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Premature luteal demise or luteal insufficiency is not well characterised Selleck ABT263 as a cause of pregnancy loss in domestic species, including horses. In this report, a mare inseminated with cooled-transported semen at our facility returned for a routine pregnancy diagnosis at 15 days post ovulation. Ultrasonography per rectum revealed endometrial oedema and the absence of visual indication of a corpus luteum on either ovary. Nonetheless, an embryonic vesicle small for the gestational age was identified. Daily oral altrenogest treatment was implemented immediately. Serum progesterone concentration was 0.67 ng/ml, which is below the threshold considered adequate for pregnancy maintenance in the mare. Examinations were repeated at 17, 25, 30, 39, 49, 72 and 120 days post ovulation. At 25 days post ovulation the embryonic vesicle presented normal development for the gestational age. In addition, sequential blood samples were collected to measure progesterone, equine chorionic gonadotrophin and oestrone sulphate concentrations.

It is highly likely that this infection is under diagnosed in dev

It is highly likely that this infection is under diagnosed in developing countries where diagnostic facilities are minimal. Therefore strategies to improve the awareness and upgrade the Selleck Kinase Inhibitor Library diagnostic facilities need to be implemented in near future.”
“A qPCR assay was developed

to measure expression of male-specific vitelline coat lysin (VCL) and female-specific vitelline envelop receptor for lysin (VERL) in the mantle of Mytilus edulis, the common mussel. The ability of the method to correctly assign sex was validated by a combination of histology and a previously developed end-point RT-PCR for these transcripts (Hines et al. 2007). Mussels used were collected over a 21-month period, and sex could be assigned by qPCR in > 90% of the animals including at times of the year when the animals were ‘spent’ or were rebuilding gonads. In the previous and this study, some individual animals appeared to produce both VCL and VERL transcripts when measured by the RT-PCR method, but the qPCR assay showed that in the majority of such animals, only one transcript was present at appreciable quantity. However, in a few animals (similar selleckchem to 3%), equal amounts of each

were found but the significance of this observation requires further study. VCL and VERL transcripts were low in the initial samples of October 2006 but increased to a maximum at March 2007 before decreasing again rapidly to a minimum in June 2007 before increasing

again in October 2007. In a second, shorter sequence of sampling another maxima was found in March 2008 and a minima by June 2008. Although both transcripts reached a peak at the same time, it seems that VCL appears, accumulates and disappears in a narrower time-window than does VERL. This may relate to the higher energy costs of building eggs than sperm.”
“Background: More than 36% of the total selleck kinase inhibitor population of Iran consists of young people aged 15 to 25 yr. Recent studies show that this age group has the highest rate of serious health problems. Youth participatory studies on youth health priority have shown that mental health is one of the most important priorities in youth health. Aim to assessing the mental health needs of youth we conducted a peer group based multidisciplinary study.\n\nMethods: To conduct a multi disciplinary approach through involving youth for finding their mental health needs and their suggestion for solving them, we designed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. To data collection, we used a semi-structured guide questionnaire. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted by trained peers with youth aged 15-25 years.

CONCLUSIONS: Expression of activated LXR alpha blocks proliferati

CONCLUSIONS: Expression of activated LXR alpha blocks proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and slows the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. It also reduces

intestinal tumor formation after administration of chemical carcinogens, and in Apc(min/+) mice. LXR agonists therefore might be developed as therapeutic treatments for colorectal cancer.”
“Aims Although several factors contribute to wound healing, bacterial infections and the presence of biofilm can significantly affect healing. Despite that this clearly indicates that therapies should address biofilm in wounds, only few wound care products have been evaluated for their antibiofilm effect. For this reason, Crenigacestat solubility dmso we developed a rapid quantification approach to investigate

the efficacy of wound care products on wounds infected with Staphylococcus spp. Methods and Results An in vitro chronic wound infection model was used in which a fluorescent Staph.aureus strain was used to allow the rapid quantification of the bacterial burden after treatment. A good correlation was observed between the fluorescence signal and the bacterial counts. When evaluated in EX 527 solubility dmso this model, several commonly used wound dressings and wound care products inhibited biofilm formation resulting in a decrease between one and seven log CFU per biofilm compared with biofilm formed in the absence of products. In contrast, most dressings only moderately affected mature biofilms. Conclusion Our model allowed the rapid quantification of the bacterial burden after treatment. However, the efficacy of treatment varied between the different types of

dressings and/or wound care products. Significance and Impact of the Study Our model can be used to compare the efficacy of wound care products to inhibit biofilm formation and/or eradicate mature biofilms. In addition, the results indicate that treatment of infected wounds should be started as soon as possible and that novel products with more potent antibiofilm activity are needed.”
“Duez H, Staels B. Rev-erb-alpha: an integrator of circadian rhythms and metabolism. J Appl Physiol 107: 1972-1980, 2009. First published August 20, 2009; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00570.2009.-The endogenous circadian clock ensures daily selleck chemical rhythms in diverse behavioral and physiological processes, including locomotor activity and sleep/wake cycles, but also food intake patterns. Circadian rhythms are generated by an internal clock system, which synchronizes these daily variations to the day/night alternance. In addition, circadian oscillations may be reset by the time of food availability in peripheral metabolic organs. Circadian rhythms are seen in many metabolic pathways (glucose and lipid metabolism, etc.) and endocrine secretions (insulin, etc.). As a consequence, misalignment of the internal timing system vs.

center dot Given that family history can be easily assessed i

\n\ncenter dot Given that family history can be easily assessed in routine clinical practice, it should be regarded as an important parameter to consider alongside PSA level for prostate cancer risk assessment.”
“Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea in developing countries where they lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in children. These organisms are a leading cause of diarrheal illness in travelers to endemic countries. ETEC pathogenesis, and consequently vaccine approaches, have largely focused on plasmid-encoded enterotoxins or fimbrial colonization factors. To date

these approaches have not yielded a broadly protective vaccine. However, recent studies suggest that ETEC pathogenesis is more complex than previously appreciated and involves additional Daporinad inhibitor plasmid and chromosomally encoded virulence molecules www.selleckchem.com/products/a-1210477.html that can be targeted in vaccines. Here, we review recent novel antigen discovery efforts, potential contribution of these proteins to the molecular pathogenesis of ETEC and protective immunity, and the potential implications for development of next generation vaccines for important pathogens. These proteins may help to improve the effectiveness of future vaccines by making them simpler and possibly broadly protective because of their conserved nature.”
“The purpose of this study was to investigate

bovine bile induced protein changes within Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) in vitro. The larvae were activated by 5% raw bovine bile diluted in saline and in serum-free RPMI-1640 medium at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 for 2 h and, respectively. The crude and excretory secretory (ES) antigens

from NIL were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western selleck products blot. Following activation and comparison to blots of non-activated ML, blots of activated T. spiralis crude worm extract gave rise to three new protein bands (133, 125, and 26 kDa) when screened with mouse infection sera, and four new bands (125, 116, 80, and 29 kDa) when screened with sera from mice immunized with ES antigen. In the same screenings, a loss of two bands migrating at 106 and 25 kDa, and three bands migrating at 76, 58, and 16 kDa, respectively, was observed. When ES antigens from activated ML were blotted and compared to non-activated ML, four new bands (136, 39, 38, and 36 kDa) and seven new bands (136, 120, 100, 39, 36, 34, and 31 kDa) appeared when screened with infection sera and ES immune sera, respectively. In the same comparison, two bands migrating at 67 and 20 kDa, and ten bands migrating at 132,112, 33, 32, 26, 23, 21,19,16, and 15 kDa, were no longer recognized by the ML infection sera and immune sera, respectively. The results showed that after the ML were activated by bile, their protein profiles changed.