The subcortical structure borders were plotted by freeview visual

The subcortical structure borders were plotted by freeview visualization tools (part of FreeSurfer package) and compared against the brain regions. In case of discrepancy, they were corrected manually. A separate mask was generated for each and every segmented subcortical region and parcellated cortical region. These masks were transferred to the T1 native space

using nearest-neighbor interpolation. The transformation matrix was obtained by registering Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the subject’s head from FreeSurfer space to native space by FMRIB software library (FSL) linear registration tool ( with 6 degree of freedom (df), rigid-body, 256 bins normalized mutual information cost function, and trilinear interpolation. Quality check was inhibitor ARQ197 performed by overlaying the masks on top of the T1 image in the subject’s native space. No discrepancy was found at this stage. Resting BOLD fMRI preprocessing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The 6:1 slice interleaving of Philips scanner was corrected using Sinc interpolation using SPM8 software package. Our MRI protocol did not include bias field map acquisition, thus we could not correct for B0 field inhomogeneity correction. However, correlations in temporal selleck inhibitor signals are not altered with the mean of the signals, therefore the effect of B0 field inhomogeneity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical absence of spatial smoothing is negligible.

It should be emphasized that spatial smoothing is not required in fMRI data analysis in native space. However, this does not rule out the effect of B0 field inhomogeneity in the intermodal registration of fMRI and T1 scans. This will be discussed next in the next section. There have been many reports of motion-induced correlation between ROIs in resting-state BOLD fMRI data (Birn et al. 2006; Power et al. 2012; Van Dijk et al. 2012; Carp 2013), so extra caution was taken in this study to deal with this issue (see Fig. 3). We used mcflirt

(motion correction tools Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the FSL package [Jenkinson et al. 2012]) to Brefeldin_A register all the volumes to a reference image (Jenkinson et al. 2002). The reference image was generated by registering (6 df, 256 bins mutual information, and Sinc interpolation) all volumes to the middle volume and averaging them. We made sure that the selected middle volume was free of artifacts and motion by examining the derivative of the transformation parameters around that volume. We then used the method described in Power et al. (2012) to calculate frame-wise displacement (FD) from the six motion parameters and root mean square difference (RMSD) of the bold percentage signal in the consecutive volumes for every subject. To be more conservative, we lowered the threshold of our RMSD to 0.3%. (It was originally suggested to be 0.5%.

This is supported by much consonant, evidence 3 Briggs et al4 use

This is supported by much consonant, evidence.3 Briggs et al4 used factor and cluster analysis to distinguish patients with dyspneic panic attacks, who responded better to imipramine than alprazolam. The patients with nondyspneic panic attacks responded better to alprazolam than imipramine. A major incongruity with “panic equals fear” theorizing is the transience of the attack. Fear does #quality control keyword# not. stop until the danger has gone. The spontaneous panic attack usually terminates after 4 minutes of marked distress. Perhaps this is due to acute hyperventilation adaptively dropping the blood CO2 level while raising oxygenation, thus

assuring the suffocation monitor that suffocation is not impending, which terminates the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical alarm. This is in keeping with the frequent, finding of chronic hyperventilation and hypocapnia due to frequent sighing in panic patients. That the HPA system is inhibited during panic may be because HPA release causes a precipitous rise in metabolic oxidation, which would be counterproductive under asphyxiating circumstances. Further, Perna et al5 found that subjects with a history of unexpected panic attacks had a high rate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of family history of PD, and that first-degree asymptomatic relatives of PD patients had a much higher rate of CO2 sensitivity than normal subjects.6

Further, Perna et al7 showed that the PD probands with CO2 hypersensitivity accounted for most, of the familial loading. CO2 hypersensitivity may be due to a particular genetic dysfunction among the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical multiple phenotypes called PD. It may cut across current syndromal boundaries. The relevance of respiratory CO2 sensitivity to the genetics of PD receives remarkable confirmation by Bcllodi et als, who amplify the classic diagnostic concordance study of identical and fraternal

twins by administering CO2 challenges. With regard to PD, probandwise concordance rates were higher for monozygotic pairs (6 out. of 9, 67%) than for dizygotic pairs (neither out. of 2, 0%). For spontaneous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical panic attacks, the respective rates were 71 % and 18%. For CO2-induced panic attacks, the respective rates were Brefeldin_A 56% and 13%. These marked differences, if replicated in larger samples, indicate that the genetic relationship is not. simply additive, but. may be the emergent outcome of genetic interactions. Such complex genetics make attempts to link disease to single DNA learn more regions even more problematic. The search for cerebral markers is of great interest, but, lacking a detailed theory of how psych opathology relates to cerebral dysfunction, we must recognize that this is useful and exploratory, rather than definitive, work. Unfortunately, the history of biological psychiatr}’ is replete with reports of baseline differences between patients and normal subjects that turn out.

22 Baseline Glu elevations normalized with treatment but there we

22 Baseline Glu elevations normalized with treatment but there were no changes in NAA. However, the Glu normalization did not correlate with symptom

improvement. These results are consistent with a dopamine D2 modulation of striatal hypeglutamalergia. Consistently, Goto et al23 reported similar Glx prefrontal reductions following 6 months of antipsychotic treatment. Experimental agent studies Few studies have used 1H-MRS to examine neurochemical effects of non-dopamine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical D2 blockers for potential applications in schizophrenia. Jarkog et al24 recently examined the effect of adjunct davunetide (a neurotrophic peptide) for 12 weeks in schizophrenia. Higher-dose davunetide (30 mg/day) resulted in marginal prefrontal NAA and Cho increases, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical suggesting a neuroprotective effect. However, there were no correlations with symptoms or cognitive measures. selleck kinase inhibitor Glycine has been examined for the treatment of negative

symptoms, and an 1H-MRS sequence is sensitive enough to detect brain elevations in the context of oral administration in healthy volunteers.25 Future studies may examine the glycine spectra in clinically treated populations. Finally, in a knockout mouse model with reduced glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine administration during gestation was found to revert abnormally Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical elevated prepuberal brain Gin and Gln/Glu.26 This is somewhat consistent with a studydocumenting effects of N-acetyi cysteine (NAC) on negative symptoms.27 However, there have been no reports examining the effects of NAC on 1H-MRS measures in schizophrenia. Bipolar disorder Disease-related findings The Kraguljac et Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical al2 meta-analysis reported

NAA reductions only in basal ganglia and elevations in dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (however, heterogeneity of studies was high for the latter). There were no differences in Cre or Cho. In another meta-analysis28 Glx was found to be elevated, mainly in the frontal region, regardless of medication or clinical state.29 One study reported reduced occipital GABA.30 These results suggest increased glutamatergic indices in bipolar disorder, without the more widespread neuronal dysfunction (reduced NAA) found in schizophrenia. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Treatment-related studies Some studies have used 1H-MRS in bipolar mania to evaluate correlates of treatment with lithium, other mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic agents. Lithium Cross-sectional studies suggested that lithium therapyincreases NAA31,32 in bipolar patients. However, longitudinal human studies33,34 as well GSK-3 as a rodent study35 failed to detect NAA changes. Conversely, reductions in Glx have been reported in longitudinal human33 and rat35 studies with lithium, consistent with an improvement of Glx in bipolar disorder. However, documentation of a relationship between Glx reductions and symptom improvement is lacking. Additionally, lithium induced myoinositol reductions which did not relate to changes in mood,36 but another longitudinal study found increases in this metabolite.

89 There have been three reports of nimodipine’s efficacy in bipo

89 There have been three reports of nimodipine’s efficacy in bipolar illness,90-92 including a small but well-designed on-off-on trial90; however, the largest trial showed relatively modest results in monotherapy of patients with refractory bipolar affective illness. Finally, a retrospective study found that diltiazem was effective in the maintenance treatment of bipolar illness.93 Despite this somewhat encouraging data in both acute mania and maintenance treatment of bipolar illness, there have been no comprehensive trials of CCBs (combining adequate numbers of patients with a prospective, double-blind Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical design) that would lead

practitioners to use these agents as front-line

treatment for patients with bipolar disorder at this juncture. CCBs have been studied in the treatment of depressive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical symptoms, with somewhat less encouraging results. Verapamil was found to be less effective than amitriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant [TCA]) in a double-blind trial for depression,81 and ineffective for depression among patients refractory to TCAs.94 One trial found that, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) there was greater mood improvement among those taking nicardipine compared with placebo (the study was originally designed to determine whether nicarpidine improved ECT-associated cognitive impairment; it did not).95 Furthermore,

because CCBs may be effective in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease, nimodipine has been used to augment antidepressant treatment of patients suffering from vascular depression- ie, new-onset depression in older adults associated with vascular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical lesions – in a pair of double-blind, placebocontrolled studies.96,97 Both studies found that nimodipine was superior Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to placebo in reducing the symptoms and lowering the rates of recurrence. There have been limited trials regarding the use of CCBs in the treatment of anxiety disorders. A double-blind trial revealed modest anxiolytic effects of verapamil among patients with panic disorder,98 and open trials of diltiazem and nimodipine for panic disorder also had positive results; a trial of nifedipine for customer reviews free-floating anxiety and phobia had a negative result.99 Bottom line: CCBs may be associated with Dacomitinib fatigue in some patients, but otherwise cause few neuropsychiatrie symptoms. Therapeutically, verapamil has been the moststudied agent in several trials of mania and bipolar disorder, and has had mixed but generally positive results; this agent may prove to be a viable option for patients with bipolar disorder who are pregnant or fail first-line therapies, though larger studies are needed. Diuretics Diuretics are generally associated with low rates of neuropsychiatrie adverse events.

36 Could a similar effect of depression be true for patients wit

36 Could a similar effect of depression be true for patients with cancer as well?

A meta-analysis by Satin and colleagues37 published in 2009 suggests that depression may predict mortality in cancer patients. Out of 9417 patients, those with depressive symptoms had a 26% greater mortality, and those diagnosed with major depressive disorder had a 39% higher mortality, an effect that was independent of other risk factors. In a retrospective cohort study of women with breast cancer, Danish investigators observed a modest, cancer phasedependent increase in mortality in women who had preoperative or postoperative depression.38 A smaller retrospective study of patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with malignant brain astrocytomas found that preoperative depression was independently associated with decreased survival at 12 and 20 months.39 To be sure, these observations require confirmation

in larger, prospective studies. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Furthermore, even if a negative prognostic effect of depressive symptoms is established for cancer, it will need to be demonstrated that the early detection and successful treatment of depression positively impacts survival. Until then, the most compelling rationale for depression screening and treatment remains the clinical imperative to relieve suffering and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical improve functioning. Depression and decision-making Modern cancer care presents patients with challenging decisions that begin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with screening tests (eg, serum prostatic specific antigen levels, BRCA1 status) and continue through end-of-life care. As death approaches, patients and their caregivers are frequently faced with treatment options that hold diminishing chances of benefit and escalating likelihood of toxicity. Making these choices is particularly difficult when decision-making is colored by physical discomfort, existential fear, or depression. Not surprisingly, a patient’s decision to discontinue active cancer treatment is a common trigger for psychiatric assessment of depression. Basic components of decision-making Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical capacity (DMC) include knowledge, intellectual skills, memory, attention, concentration, conceptual organization,

and aspects of “selleckchem Rucaparib executive function” such as the ability to plan, solve problems, and make probability determinations. Most of the psychiatric literature on DMC is focused on these cognitive functions and employs psychometric AV-951 approaches to the study of subjects with neuropsychiatric illnesses such as dementia, psychosis, major depression, and bipolar disorder.- In contrast, the contributions of mood, motivation, faith, and other influences on risk assessment and decision-making have received less attention but have clear implications for end-of-life care. The extent to which these selleck chemicals Z-VAD-FMK factors, and less easily quantified concepts like intuition, trust, or ambivalence affect the decision-making process is not known.

They consisted of time series measurements of naïve and heat-stre

They consisted of time series measurements of naïve and heat-stressed cells and allowed us to construct and parameterize a new dynamical model capable of inferring, in an inverse modeling approach, the likely enzyme expression profiles from

our data. With this approach we were able to show that the inferred enzyme expression profile is similar to what is known to happen to the gene expression profile in situ. In our sphingolipid work, which was described briefly here and will be presented elsewhere in detail, a computational optimization analysis was able to infer changes in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical enzyme profiles following a shift in heat. Intriguingly, the model analysis, without manual intervention or human curation, identified enzymes that likely respond to heat simply according to their direct sensitivity to temperature and others that seem to respond to changes by targeted gene expression. Together, these two studies indicate how heat induces changes in proteins, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical which are transduced in parallel, directly or via lipid signaling, to the level of gene expression, which in turn facilitates a well-coordinated heat response and to longer-term metabolic adaptations.

While many Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical studies on heat stress responses are available in the literature, it seems that we are approaching a situation where many experimental observations can be merged successfully into a computational construct that combines the direct and indirect Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical effects of heat, for instance on partial protein unfolding, and on gene expression,

metabolic state, and cellular physiology. The next steps toward such a computational construct will include more complete models of the gene regulatory network at the heart of the Tubacin FDA long-term heat response. Such a model (Figure 6) will have to integrate much Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical diverse, and often qualitative, information on the connectivity and regulation of gene expression, and combine this information with time series data, characterizing gene and protein expression profiles, rates of transcription, and half-lives of transcripts obtained in yeast cells growing under heat adaptation. At present, some of the required datasets for such a comprehensive model are available for control and stressed cells, but sufficient time series data of protein production (rate of translation) and protein half-lives in cells under heat stress are still lacking. The reward of combining, in a fully Entinostat dynamical model, aspects of gene regulation, protein changes, metabolic state changes, and signaling events will be a much improved understanding of a besides paradigmatic control task in biology. Figure 6 Schematic overview of the multi-scale regulatory model of the heat stress response. Heat stress (HS) increases the expression of the transcription factor MSN, which in turn regulates genes that code for enzymes of central metabolism that are involved …

By exposing cells of the breast cancer line MCF-7 to ELF-EMF, it

By exposing cells of the breast cancer line MCF-7 to ELF-EMF, it has been found that ELF-EMF alter the expression of estrogen receptor cofactors, which in the authors’ view may contribute to the induction of tamoxifen resistance in vivo.151 Currently, the debate concerns the effects of ELF-EMF on children, with some data published in the literature pointing out the risk of childhood leukemia in relation to residential

exposure, and underlining that this risk (the RR is around 2) can exist when children are chronically exposed to more than 0.4 μT.10 Large-scale Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical collaborative studies are still needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and provide answers to these numerous questions not yet resolved. Last, the deleterious Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical risk of ELF-EMF on frail populations

such as children and aged people may be greater and should be documented, at least for their residential exposure. Figure 2. Effects of chronic exposure of male rats to a sinusoidal 50-Hz magnetic field ( from 1 to 100 uT) on nocturnal pineal activity. The rats were exposed every day from 14:00 to 08:00 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for 30 days at three different intensities. Only 10 and 1 00 uT were able … Figure 3. Nocturnal plasma melatonin patterns (A) and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentration (6SM; B) in the first-void morning urine (20:00 to 08:00). This study was carried out in 15 healthy chronically (in the workplace and at home) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical exposed men (daily and for 1 …
Time in biology ticks at all frequencies: from the milliseconds of neuronal firing and seconds of the heartbeat to hours of the day, seasonal change, and years, encompassing the human life cycle. Time-related information provides a different approach to understanding pathology. Psychiatrists in the nineteenth century were fascinated by these levels of temporal organization, intuiting a deep connection with many of the symptoms

manifested by their severely disturbed patients. In the pre-psychopharmacological era, such rhythms in psychopathology were Erlotinib documented over months and years in an attempt to correlate them with physiology or biochemistry (eg, thyroid hormone Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and periodic catatonia). With the advent of long-term Carfilzomib ambulatory monitoring, better tools became available to measure physiological rhythms and their links with clinical states. The major cyclic phenomena that appear relevant to psychiatric illness are 24-hour (circadian) rhythms. The circadian clock interacts with a homeostatic drive of sleep pressure increasing during wakefulness and dissipating during sleep. These two processes are prímaríly responsible for the architecture of the sleep-wake cycle, cognitive and motor performance, sleepiness, and mood Imatinib Mesylate price throughout the day. Thus, great attention needs to be paid to the correct alignment of the circadian system with the day-night cycle to obtain restorative sleep coupled with daytime alertness and well-being.

One of these principles lies in the working material of evolution

One of these principles lies in the working material of evolution and natural selection – the very existence of genetic variability. In the current manuscript I pointed out the uniqueness of the mitochondria being a major matrix for genetic variability both at the population and individual levels. Technological advances in sequencing techniques (next-generation sequencing) currently allow exploring both Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical levels of genetic variability in human mitochondria.

Full assessment of intra- and interindividual sequence variability in various human populations and in various tissues in healthy and disease conditions will provide a first glance into the forces driving the formation of genetic variants. Characterizing the full extent of common and rare mutations within individuals will allow identifying the sequence alterations that have functional potential. These mutations are “sensed” by natural selection but are also excellent candidates to play a role in disease risk. Implementing the principles of evolution into

understanding the genetic basis of genetic disorders constitutes the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical essence of evolutionary medicine and, in my unpretentious opinion, points to the future of biomedical research. Acknowledgments This paper would not exist without the encouragement and support of Dr Shraga Blazer. This work is supported in part by personal and Bikurah grants from the Israeli Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Science Foundation (ISF) and from the Israeli Cancer Association. Abbreviations: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CDCV common disease-common variant; CDMRV

common disease-multiple rare variant; LHON Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy; MELAS myoclonic epilepsy and stroke-like episodes; mtDNA mitochondrial DNA; nDNA nuclear DNA Footnotes Conflict of interest: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
The concept of Intelligent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Design (ID) was proposed in 1996 by biochemist Michael Behe in his book, Darwin’s Black Box, the Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. Behe claimed to have discovered an ironclad proof for the existence of a supernatural being, whom he called the “Intelligent Designer.” His studies of the living cell led Behe to conclude that Darwinian evolution cannot explain many biochemical reactions that take place in the cell; only ID can. Brefeldin Although Behe studiously refrained from identifying the Intelligent Dacomitinib Designer, the widespread understanding is that the Intelligent Designer is God. Behe’s proposed proof that the cell could not have formed through Darwinian evolution, generated enormous interest (reported in Newsweek, U.S. News & World Report, New York Times, Commentary, National Review and many other periodicals). Michael Behe is a creationist’s dream come true. Unlike previous religious “scientists” who attacked evolution, Behe is a Enzalutamide prostate cancer Professor of Biochemistry at a respected university, a research scientist who does experiments, is awarded grants and publishes papers in international science journals.

16 There are a total of 34 prostrations in the usual five daily o

16 There are a total of 34 prostrations in the usual five daily obligatory prayers, during which each HDCK posture lasts for approximately 10 to 15 seconds. In the unusual or periodic non-obligatory prayers observed during the Ramadan fasting period or Taraweeh and the late night prayer or Tahajjud, Axitinib chemical structure prostration usually lasts for up to 2

minutes or even longer. None of the previous studies has explored cardiovascular #Ku-0059436 keyword# responses during the HDCK posture, assumed during Muslim prayer activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular responses of healthy subjects during prostrations in Muslim prayers. We hypothesized that there would be no significant difference in cardiovascular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical parameters at rest and during Sujood and that there would be no significant gender difference in cardiovascular parameters at different time points during

Sujood. Methods Participants Seventy healthy young students of the University of Maiduguri and staff of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (35 males and 35 females) participated in the study. Subjects with a known history of chronic headache, glaucoma, hypertension, or other related heart diseases were excluded and informed consent was obtained from the participants before data collection. Instruments The following instruments were used for the collection of data Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the study: digital electronic device to monitor blood pressure and pulse rate (Beurer D-89077 Germany), bathroom scale, Standiometer, stop watch, table mat, and data collection instruments such as data forms and pens. The study was conducted at the gymnasium Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the Department of Physiotherapy, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Study Procedure A repeated measurement design was utilized for this study. The participants were interviewed for medical history of any cardiovascular ailment,

and those who met the inclusion Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical criteria were given a consent form to sign. A pilot study was carried out prior to the main study, which revealed that the participants started experiencing discomfort at three minutes into Sujood. Batimastat The participants were advised not to eat kola nuts (kola nitida) and avoid drinking caffeine-containing beverages 24 hours before the commencement of the study. All the measurements were taken in the morning because of the hot weather condition during the study period. On arrival at the lab, the participants received explanation about the protocol of the study and their heights and weights were measured using a Standiometer and a bathroom scale, respectively. Afterward, the participants assumed sitting position. Five minutes after the assumption of sitting position, resting period blood pressure and pulse rate were measured. The measurements were repeated at the seventh minute and the average of the two readings was recorded.

For both participants, the results showed strong initial activati

For both participants, the results showed strong initial activation in Broca and Wernicke areas during the language task, followed by weaker activation in the corresponding areas of the right hemisphere, suggesting a left lateralization of language. In Chaudhary et al. (2011)’s study, 15 healthy right-handed adults also performed an overt verbal fluency task. The results revealed

an increase in [HbO] and a decrease in [HbR] in the anterior frontal cortex with more activation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the left than right anterior frontal cortex, whereas activation was bilateral in the prefrontal cortex. The verbal fluency task also demonstrated consistent results in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magneto-encephalography (MEG) in determining language localization and lateralization (Yamamoto et al. 2006; Pelletier et al. 2011; Gallagher et al. 2008; Pirmoradi et al. 2010). With regard to reading, a recent review by Quaresima et al. (2012) reports on fNIRS

studies that used overt or covert Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reading in adults. For example, Kahlaoui et al. (2007) presented 112 written words (concrete nouns) and 112 written Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pseudowords to 10 adults aged between 25 and 35. While sellectchem undergoing fNIRS recordings, the participants were asked to read the Tofacitinib baldness stimuli silently and decide whether each stimulus was a word that belonged to the French language. fNIRS data showed increased blood oxygenation patterns in frontal and temporal regions bilaterally (increase of [HbO] and decrease of [HbR]) in the decision phase. Another study by Hofmann et al. (2008) examined cortical oxygenation changes in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the left inferior parietal gyrus (IPG),

and the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) while German-speaking participants were performing a lexical decision task from visual input. The stimuli set consisted of 100 written words (50 low-frequency and 50 high-frequency) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and 100 written pseudowords. The results showed a significantly larger [HbO] increase and [HbR] decrease in the SFG and left IPG in word than in pseudoword reading. In the IFG, a significantly greater decrease of [HbR] without an increase of [HbO] was found when participants read low-frequency words, compared with high-frequency words. The author’s hypothesis is that the decrease of [HbR] is likely due to Brefeldin_A the contribution of the grapheme-to-phoneme conversion that is higher when reading low- versus high-frequency words. In addition to words and pseudowords, sentence and text stimuli were also used in fNIRS studies. For instance, Kennan et al. (2002) conducted NIRS recordings while six healthy adult participants were requested to make a grammatical judgment on written sentences. Half of the sentence stimuli were well-formed while the other half were either syntactically or semantically incongruous. The results revealed a left-hemisphere language dominance in prefrontal areas.