Air drying means that the water-filled collagen layer will collap

Air drying means that the water-filled collagen layer will collapse and prevent penetration of the adhesive into the exposed collagen meshwork and thus, formation of a sound hybrid layer. It seems that the presence of water in the interstices of the collagen mesh is the dominating factor. A hydrophilic monomer such as HEMA in the self-etch primer would be rinsed away with water easily from the demineralized dentin, which might result in collapse of the collagen when the dentin surface was air-dried after rinsing.10 In a previous study,30 operatively removal of the contaminated area and repeating the entire bonding procedure was recommended. CONCLUSIONS In this study, saliva contamination after primer application significantly reduced bond strength.

Contamination of the uncured adhesive was not critical according to the results of this study. In principle, any kind of contamination of the bonding area should be avoided.
Sinus floor augmentation (SFA) is one of the techniques that have been proposed for improving the long-term retention of dental implants.1 The procedure involves the creation of a submucoperiosteal pocket in the floor of the maxillary sinus for placement of a graft consisting of autogenous, allogenic, or alloplastic material.2 Currently, two main approaches to the SFA procedure can be found in the literature. These include lateral window (external) and osteotome (internal) procedures.3 External technique allows for a greater amount of bone augmentation to the atrophic maxilla but requires a larger surgical access.

4 However, internal technique is considered to be a less invasive alternative to the external method to increase the volume of bone in the posterior maxilla.5 Complications of the SFA predominantly consist of disturbed wound healing, hematoma, sequestration of bone, and transient maxillary sinusitis.6 The last complication was considered to be the major drawback of this procedure.7 Previous investigations have reported maxillary sinusitis up to 20% of patients after SFA.8 Postoperative acute maxillary sinusitis may cause implant and graft failures. The reported cases of maxillary sinusitis developed after the lift procedure are all associated with the external techniques. On the contrary, internal procedure appears to be a safer method with rare complications.

In this report we presented an acute maxillary sinusitis complication following internal sinus lifting in a patient with chronic maxillary sinusitis. In our knowledge, this complication after internal sinus lifting procedure has not been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT A 52 year-old woman with chronic maxillary sinusitis was referred to our clinic for implant therapy. Clinical and Dacomitinib radiographic examination showed no signs of acute sinusitis (Figure 1). The patient had a history of an acute sinusitis attack 6 weeks ago. Figure 1 Preoperative radiograph of the patient.

3,5�C14,17,18,23 The data for hypodontia, excluding the third mol

3,5�C14,17,18,23 The data for hypodontia, excluding the third molars, in both genders combined varies from 0.3% in the Israeli population3 to 11.3% in the Irish13 and 11.3% in Slovenian populations.20 The different findings could be explained by the variety in the samples examined in terms of age range, ethnicity and type of radiographs used for evaluation. Table 1 Comparison of findings of hypodontia in various populations. As a rule, if only one or a few teeth are missing, the absent tooth will be the most distal tooth of any given type24 i.e. lateral incisors, second pre-molars and third molars. In many populations, it has been demonstrated that, except third molars, the most commonly missing teeth are the maxillary lateral incisor, mandibular and maxillary second premolar.

3,10,15,20 According to Jorgenson24 the mandibular second premolar is the tooth most frequently absent after the third molar, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor and maxillary second premolar, for Europeans. In the literature, hypodontia was found more frequently in females than males.2,3,4,7,20 Most authors report a small but not significant predominance of hypodontia in females, but statistically significant differences have been found in some researches.2,3,4,7 Many studies have demonstrated that there is no consistent finding as to which jaw has more missing teeth. In the literature, few studies have compared the prevalence rates of tooth agenesis between the anterior and posterior regions and showed the distribution of missing teeth between the right and left sides.

Literature search in June 2006 revealed no previous studies about the prevalence of hypodontia in the permanent dentition in Turkish population and in Turkish orthodontic patients. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hypodontia in the permanent dentition among a group of Turkish sample who sought orthodontic treatment and to compare present results with the specific findings of other populations. The occurrence was evaluated in relation to gender, specific missing teeth, the location and pattern of distribution in the maxillary and mandibular arches and right and left sides. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 4000 orthodontic patient files from the Department of Orthodontics of Erciyes University, Kayseri and K?r?kkale University, K?r?kkale were reviewed.

The patient files (panoramic radiographs, specific periapical radiographs, dental casts, anamnestic data), were the only sources of information used to diagnose hypodontia.21 If an accurate diagnosis of hypodontia could not be made, the files were excluded. Moreover, radiographs of patients with any syndrome or cleft lip/palate were excluded from the study. The Entinostat patients had no previous loss of teeth due to trauma, caries, periodontal disease, or orthodontic extraction. A total of 2413 patients�� records of sufficient quality were selected.

The level of education, the

The level of education, the selleck chemicals Dorsomorphin type of insurance, and number of dental visits appeared as the main explanatory factors for subjects�� dental check-ups in the final logistic regression analysis (Table 4), which simultaneously controls for all factors included. The model indicated that those with a medium (OR=2.6) or high (OR=3.3) level of education, and with commercial insurance (OR=2.4) were more likely to go to a dentist for a check-up. The model fitted the data well (P=0.62). Table 4 Factors related to reporting that a check-up was the reason for most recent dental visit, as explained by means of a logistic regression model fitted to the data on adults reporting a dental visit (n=1019) in Tehran, Iran. DISCUSSION Only 16% of our respondents gave a check-up as the reason for their most recent dental visit.

In comparison with developed countries, this is far from the recommended way to use dental services. In Netherlands, almost all insured patients (92%), both public and private, reported that they had visited a dentist for a check-up within the past 12 months.20 High or moderate check-up rates have been reported for the USA, 78%,8 Finland, 57%,35 Australia, 53%37 and Japan, 46%.13 In the UK, 62% of adults report having had a dental check-up within the previous 12 months, the figures being clearly higher for those under the NHS (46%) compared to 14% for the non-NHS subjects.38 The behavior of visiting a dentist regularly for check-ups has its origins in one��s childhood. In addition, the health policy and the characteristics of the oral health care system in a community create and maintain circumstances favorable to such behavior.

One important and effective way to promote this behavior has been school-based dental care, where children visit a dentist for check-ups at regular intervals. Studies have shown that this preventive behavior seems to continue into adulthood.29,39�C40 Consequently, in those countries with higher rates for dental check-ups, school-based dental care programs have long dominated.41 In Iran, the public health services offer dental care to school children up to 12 years of age.42 The fact that this care does not include regular dental check-ups is probably reflected in the present adults�� check-up behavior as well. Those insurance health systems with prevention-oriented features and an obligation to regular dental check-ups have resulted into higher rates of check-ups.

7 The very low rates of checkups in the present study certainly reflect the nature of the health delivery system. Unfortunately, Iran has a treatment-oriented health care system where patients usually make a dental visit when they have trouble with their teeth or gums. The policies of either public or commercial insurance include no obligation to attend regular dental check-ups. In our study, having a commercial insurance had Entinostat a strong impact on attendance at dental checkups.

In the first part of the study, the panoramic radiographs were ev

In the first part of the study, the panoramic radiographs were evaluated for MCI classification by the same observer three times with four weeks intervals. The agreement between the observations was calculated with weighted Kappa statistics. selleck inhibitor Among these panoramic radiographs, 22 of them which were evaluated as Class 1 in at least two observations were accepted as Class 1; accordingly 20 panoramic radiographs were accepted as Class 2 and 10 panoramic radiographs were accepted as Class 3. These radiographs were scanned in 300 dots per inch resolution with a scanner having transparency adaptor. Image processing and analyzing was performed with ImageJ program.23 On these radiographs region of interests (ROI), where best represents the mandibular cortical morphology were created both in left and right side.

FD in box-counting method and Lacunarity were calculated from these ROIs and the mean values of them were used in the study. The radiographs were arbitrarily rotated until the basal cortical bone where the ROI will be created becomes parallel to the horizontal plane (Figure 1). The ROIs extended in the medio-lateral direction and when creating ROIs, great care was shown to include only the inferior cortical bone of the mandible (Figure 2). Digital images were segmented to binary image as described by White and Rudolph.24 The ROIs were duplicated and blurred by a Gaussian filter with a diameter of 35 pixels. The resulting heavily blurred image was then subtracted from the original, and 128 was added to the result at each pixel location.

The image was then made binary, thresholding on a brightness value of 128 and inverted. With this method, the regions which represent trabecular bone were set to white and porosities of the cortical bone were set to black (Figure 3). The aim of this operation was to reflect individual variations in the image such as cortical bone and porosities. Figure 1 Rotated cropped panoramic radiograph. Figure 2 ROI extending from distal to the mental foramen distally. Figure 3 Binary form of the ROI. Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity were calculated with ImageJ plugin named FracLacCirc (First Version). FracLacCirc calculates the box counting Fractal Dimension using a shifting grid algorithm that does multiple scans on each image, and it is suitable for analyzing images of biological cells and textures.

It works on only binarized images, so images must be thresholded prior to analysis.23 Weighted Kappa index, which was calculated with a program named ComKappa,25 was used as a measure of intra-observer agreement for cortical index evaluation. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene��s tests AV-951 were used to check for the normality and homogeneity of the data. ANOVA was used to evaluate whether Fractal Dimension differs significantly between the patients having Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 MCI morphology using P value as 0.05 with 95% confidence interval.

Previous studies showed contradictory results regarding the effec

Previous studies showed contradictory results regarding the effect of C-factor on composite SB1518 resin restorations. Laboratory studies showed that high C-factor increases the rate and amount of stresses resulting from polymerization shrinkage of resin composite restorations.19,29 Santini et al30 found no difference in the amount of microleakage between box-shaped cavities and V-shaped cavities at both enamel and gingival margins. Using bovine incisors, a difference in microleakage has been demonstrated between two cylindrical class V cavities of different dimensions, but of the same C-factor.15 Therefore, it was concluded that microleakage is more closely related to the volume of the restoration rather than to the C-factor.

14 Our results were very interesting, as class V cavities with higher C-factor had more microleakage than class V cavities with lower C-factor only when the fast curing mode was used. On the other hand, there was no difference in the amount of microleakage when the soft-start curing mode was used, regardless of the value of the C-factor. In all groups, the volume of the restorations was the same. These results can be explained by the fact that fast curing mode produces higher stresses at the adhesive system, and these stresses have the worst effect in case of unfavorable cavity design (i.e. high C-factor). One could speculate that the variation between the results of different studies can be attributed to variations in methodology, for example, type of cavity prepared in each study (class I vs. class II vs. class V), type of teeth used (human vs.

bovine vs. models), restorative materials used, the curing protocols employed in addition to the type of adhesive system and the way it has been manipulated. Another important factor is the way the investigators change the C-factor of the cavity, i.e., by increasing the depth or the width of the cavity, as using cavities of different depths results in different dentinal properties, which can affect microleakage. In our study, we purposely changed the C-factor by changing the shape of the cavities, keeping the volume and the depth of the cavities constant in all the tested groups. One LED curing light was used in this study, but with two curing modes. Although the curing time was different between the two curing modes used, the total energy delivered was the same (16.5 J/cm2).

Previous studies demonstrated that soft-start curing delivers low levels of energy initially, allowing the resin composite to flow. This releases the stresses of polymerization shrinkage, resulting in reducing microleakage.7,31,32 High polymerization stresses have been shown to increase Cilengitide leakage in class V cavities.12 On the contrary, Hofmann and Hunecke6 showed no difference between high intensity curing lights with soft-start curing, with regard to margin quality and marginal seal of class II resin composite restorations.

4,5,7 As it is impossible to see the fracture lines in the absolu

4,5,7 As it is impossible to see the fracture lines in the absolute lateral radiograph of the hip,7 we used a schematic diagram showing a hip in this radiographic view. Thus as we observe the oblique radiographs Ixazomib purchase of the hip, we sequentially transfer to the drawing the fractures in the walls, in the columns and of the columns. (Figure 4) As a result it is possible to see the lines and the “format” of the fracture, which allows it to be more easily understood. Figure 4 Drawings representing acetabular fractures. (A) Anterior column, (B) Posterior column, (C) T-shaped. We would be transforming information from the radiographs into information from the drawing, creating the lateral view and thus managing to perceive the location of the lines of the fracture, being able to classify it.

As a presentation of a clinical example we have the images of an acetabular fracture in the anteroposterior, alar and obturator views. In the anteroposterior image (Figure 5) we did not manage to clearly define the fracture lines. When studying the oblique images we managed to visualize that there is interruption of the iliopectineal lines and of the ischiopubic ramus in the foraminal view and we transported these fracture lines to the diagram. In the alar view we observed the fracture line on the iliopubic line and transported it to the diagram. At the end we have the absolute lateral view of the hip drawn and can now clearly observe the type of fracture. In the example it is a T-fracture. (Figure 6) Figure 5 Anteroposterior pelvis.

Figure 6 (A) Foraminal view of the right hip; (B) Diagram displaying the fracture lines in the anterior column and in the ischiopubic ramus; (C) Alar view of the right hip; (D) Diagram displaying the fracture lines in the anterior column and in the ischiopubic ramus … We selected 50 cases of acetabular fracture treated by the Hip Disorder Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Irmandade da Santa Casa de S?o Paulo, in the period from 2000 to 2010, and scanned the anteroposterior and oblique views of the pelvis (alar and foraminal), totaling 150 images. The radiographic films were photographed with a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W320 camera, always by the same person, and diagrammed in a slide presentation, with the identifications concealed.

AV-951 We selected eight posterior wall, four anterior wall, five posterior column, four anterior column, three transverse, five column and posterior wall, five anterior column and hemitransverse, five transverse and posterior wall, six two-column, and five T-fracture cases. (Table 2). All the cases were analyzed and classified by each individual from the two groups simultaneously, in five 30-minute sessions, and were reevaluated three weeks afterwards in a new order of presentation. Table 2 Classification of the types of acetabular fractures according to the Judet and Letournel classification, evaluated in this study.