The LY3039478 clinical trial risk of maternal rubella infection in the outbreak was as follows: non-immunized pregnant woman and pregnant woman with a rubella HI antibody titer < 64 and low IgG AI.”

bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients, the surgeon’s operative view is often obscured by the hypertrophic fatty left lobe of the liver. The use of a conventional liver retractor mandates an additional subxiphoid wound, resulting in pain and scar formation, in addition to the risk of iatrogenic liver injury during retractor insertion. To overcome these limitations, we developed a simple, rapid, and safe technique for liver retraction-V-shaped liver suspension technique (V-LIST)-by using a Penrose drain and laparoscopic stapler. A silicone Penrose drain was inserted into the peritoneal cavity and stapled to

the pars condensa of the lesser omentum and parietal peritoneum using a laparoscopic stapler. The left lobe of the liver was retracted by the V-shaped suspension. At the end of the surgery, the drain could be easily removed. In October 2009-February 2010, 14 patients underwent liver retraction with the use of this technique. We performed 12 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses and 2 sleeve gastrectomies. This series also included three cases of single incision transumbilical laparoscopic surgery. The mean time required to complete the liver retraction was 8 min 21 s (range, 2-18 min 40 s). Retraction was appropriate in all patients, without the need for additional retractors or conversion. There were no V-LIST-related perioperative complications. Our V-LIST technique using a Penrose drain

is safe and simple. It has potential applications Fedratinib cell line in single incision laparoscopic bariatric procedures.”
“Dolutegravir, a next-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration FK228 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor to treat antiretroviral therapy-naive as well as treatment-experienced HIV-infected individuals, including those who have been treated with other integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Dolutegravir is the first stand-alone agent in its class, with a pharmacokinetic profile that allows once-daily administration without the requirement for pharmacologic boosting. It is metabolized primarily by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 (UGT1A1) and is expected to have a limited propensity for drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, dolutegravir retains significant virologic activity against raltegravir- or elvitegravir-associated HIV-1 resistance mutations.”
“Hypertension management guidelines recommend titrating antihypertensive drugs stepwise every 4-6 weeks. We compared efficacy and safety of early versus late titration after 10 weeks’ treatment with irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide. Hypertensive patients uncontrolled on monotherapy were randomized into two groups. In the early titration group (E), patients received irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 150/12.

The results show that a phonon anharmonicity causes a nonlinear c

The results show that a phonon anharmonicity causes a nonlinear change in the volume plasmon energy that is not present in the liquid phase after melting. The plasmon energy/valence electron density during supercooling is not a direct extrapolation from the liquid state and tends to stabilize, possibly due to local ordering in the liquid. The study also shows that damping of the plasmon excitations

in liquid Al is faster compared to solid Al due to electron-phonon interactions and/or Anderson localization of electrons. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3609063]“
“A simple equivalent circuit method has been proposed to provide understanding of the absorption mechanism of a class of metamaterial absorbers. The absorbers

are composed of lossy frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) over the grounded dielectric Quisinostat supplier substrates. Based on the analytical method, the influence of FSS surface resistance on the frequency responses of metamaterial absorbers is discussed in detail. It is shown that wideband or narrowband absorbers can be obtained by changing the surface resistance of the FSS. The narrowband absorbers show a similar surface resistance dependence of the absorbing performance to Salisbury absorbers and the maximum bandwidth of metamaterial absorbers can be obtained with the proper surface resistance. This can serve as a guideline for the fast and efficient design of metamaterial absorbers. click here Finally, experimental results are presented for verifying

the validity of the analytical method. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3608169]“
“The low temperature epitaxial breakdown of inhomogeneously strained Si capping layers is investigated. By growing Si films on coherently strained GeSi quantum dot surfaces, we differentiate the effects of surface roughness, strain, and growth orientation on the mechanism of epitaxial breakdown. Selleck Quizartinib Using atomic force microscopy and high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, we find that whereas local lattice strain of up to 2% has a negligible effect, growth on higher-index facets such as 113 significantly reduces the local breakdown thickness. Nanoscale growth mound formation is observed above all facet orientations. Because diffusion lengths depend directly on the surface orientation, we relate the variation in epitaxial thickness to the low temperature stability of specific growth facets and the average size of kinetically limited growth mounds. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3610527]“
“Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a member of the nonselective cationic channel family. Activation of TRPV1 induces an influx of divalent and monovalent cations (i.e., Ca2+, Na+, and Mg2+) which are activated by capsaicin, heat, and acid. TRPV1 is known to be expressed in the epidermis, but little is known about the physiological significance and functional role of TRPV1 in skin.

Second, because the genes of interest are not amplified by PCR, t

Second, because the genes of interest are not amplified by PCR, there are practically no limits to the size of a gene that can be tagged. Third, there are no restrictions on the location in which the fluorescent protein can be inserted, as the position is determined by sequence homology with the recombination primers. Finally, all of the required strains and TAC clones are publically available, and the experimental procedures described here are simple and robust. Thus, we suggest that recombineering-based gene tagging should be the gold standard for gene expression studies in Arabidopsis.”
“Urothelial glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are decreased in bladder pain syndrome (BPS), and

buy PF-04929113 urinary GAGs are thought to reflect this deficiency. In previous researches, urine GAG levels were found increased, decreased, or similar between BPS and controls. Additionally, no study is available on the structure characterization of urinary chondroitin sulfate (CS) in BPS patients.

CS in the urine of BPS-affected patients and controls has been determined by specific electrophoresis, along with total GAGs and heparan sulfate (HS) percentage, and CS disaccharides have been quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography.

No significant differences were Elafibranor inhibitor obtained for total amount of GAGs, absolute content of CS and HS, and their relative percentages. Moreover,

no differences were observed for CS structure confirming similar urine Rigosertib CS composition in BPS subjects and controls.

This study found no significant differences of BPS and control urine GAG levels and CS structure to allow use of these parameters as diagnostic markers for BPS diagnosis.”
“Maintenance of cellular number and functions of attached hepatocytes during culture is an important requirement for hepatocyte-based drug screening applications. In this study, two carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-based

hydrogels were used as hepatocyte culture substrata to improve the stability of cellular adhesiveness, bioactivity and hepatic function of primary rat hepatocytes. The hydrogels were prepared from aqueous solutions of CMCs with 16.7 (CMC-Ph16) and 7.3 (CMC-Ph7) phenolic hydroxy (Ph-OH) groups per 100 repeat units of uronic acid, via peroxidase-catalyzed crosslinking reaction between Ph-OH groups. Hepatocytes formed aggregates on both hydrogels but the aggregates on CMC-Ph16 gel had more flattened configuration than on CMC-Ph7 gel. The flat aggregates stably immobilized onto CMC-Ph16 gel while spherical aggregates on CMC-Ph7 gel could be easily detached from the surface. In addition, hepatocytes on CMC-Ph16 gel showed more stable mitochondrial dehythogenase activity and albumin secretion function for 7 days than on CMC-Ph7 gel, tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), and TCPS coated with collagen (CL).

These results are encouraging for cost-effective LSC

These results are encouraging for cost-effective LSC Small molecule library designs based on semiconductor nanoparticles. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3619809]“
“Jatropha curcas (L.) trees under north Indian conditions (Lucknow) produce fruits in two major flushes, once during autumn-winter (October-December). The leaves at this time are at the senescence stages and already shedding. The second flush of fruit setting occurs during the summer (April-June) after the leaves have formed during spring (March-April). Photosynthetic performance of detached jatropha fruits was studied at three developmental stages, immature, mature and ripe fruits.

Studies were made in both winter and summer fruits in response to light, temperature and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) under controlled conditions to assess the influence of these environmental factors

on the photosynthetic performance of Belnacasan Apoptosis inhibitor jatropha fruits. Immature fruits showed high light saturating point of around 2000 mu mol m(-2) s(-1). High VPD did not show an adverse effect on the fruit A. Stomata! conductance (g(s)) showed an inverse behaviour to increasing VPD, however, transpiration (E) was not restricted by the increasing VPD in both seasons. During winter in absence of leaves on the jatropha tree the fruits along with the bark contributes maximum towards photoassimilation. Dark respiration rates (R-d) monitored in fruit coat and seeds independently, showed maximum R-d in seeds of mature fruit and these were about five times more than its fruit coat, reflecting the higher energy requirement of the developing fruit during maximum oil synthesis stage. Photosynthesis and fluorescence parameters studied indicate that young jatropha fruits are photosynthetically as efficient as its leaves and play a paramount role in scavenging the high concentration of CO2 generated

by the fruit during respiration. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The concepts of effective thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal contact resistance in composite media are applied to study heat transport in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC). In these systems, the thermal properties BI-D1870 clinical trial of liquid crystal inclusions are changed by an imposed electric field. The photopyroelectric (PPE) technique with a cell allowing the application of an electric field to the sample is used to measure the thermal parameters. A model based on effective medium approximation is used to assess the impact of interfaces on the flow of heat through the determination of the Kapitza radius. It was found that the effect of interfaces becomes dominant compared to the volume conduction of the droplet when the liquid crystal (LC) droplet radius becomes smaller than 1 micron.

14 years Following surgery, patients with TLS demonstrated an un

14 years. Following surgery, patients with TLS demonstrated an unchanged PFA (P = 0.76) with deviation toward the affected suture. The ACF remained symmetrical (P = 0.212), and the contralateral MCF remained enlarged relative to the ipsilateral side (P = 0.003). The contralateral middle fossa became more retro-displaced (P = 0.021). The ipsilateral PRA remained unchanged (P = 0.95). Ear position also remained asymmetrical (P = 0.037). The position of the TMJ was not statistically different between CAL-101 sides

before (P = 0.24) or after surgery (P = 0.07).

Conclusions: Traditional cranioplasty effectively restores calvarial shape, but does not significantly alter the dysmorphic features seen in the endocranium of patients with TLS.”
“Objective. This study investigated the effect of temporomandibular disorders on quality of life (QOL) of patients with dentofacial deformities.

Study Design. A case-control study was performed involving 3 age-and gender-matched groups: 38 preoperative participants, 38 postoperative participants, and 39 control participants. Temporomandibular joints were assessed

using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/ TMD axis I), and QOL was assessed using the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36).

Results. Significantly lower OQLQ scores were found in postoperative patients with one or more RDC/ TMD findings; the domains in which these occurred Histone Demethylase inhibitor were mental health, dentofacial

esthetics, and awareness of dentofacial esthetics for patients with myofascial pain; social aspects and awareness of dentofacial esthetics for patients with disk displacement with reduction; and all domains for patients with arthritis (all P < .05).

Conclusions. Despite the variable effect of orthognathic treatment on TMDs, the presence of TMDs in patients after treatment can have a negative effect on their CRT0066101 price QOL.”
“Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) and circulatory arrest as an assist in the surgical excision of a severe facial vascular malformation were first described by Mulliken et al in 1979. Later on, its use had expanded for resection of intracranial vascular malformations. However, to date, there have not been any published series of these procedures being used in the resection of craniofacial vascular malformations. We sought to review the first 10 surgical procedures performed at McGill University Health Centre for large vascular malformations resection using hypothermic CBP with or without circulatory arrest.

Methods: All consecutive patients at the McGill University Health Centre who had a craniofacial vascular malformation resected with the aid of CBP were reviewed. A comparison of the classic midline sternotomy with cardiac arrest to percutaneous femoral bypass with hypothermic “”low flow”" was performed. Charts were reviewed for the operative intervention including bypass parameters and short -and long-term complications of the procedure.

We evaluated the surgical complications following hip and knee ar

We evaluated the surgical complications following hip and knee arthroplasty in patients who were seropositive for hepatitis C in a matched study.

Methods: Seventy-one patients with hepatitis C underwent forty total hip arthroplasties and thirty-two total knee arthroplasties from 1995 to 2006. The patients had normal preoperative liver function tests. Patients with human Selleckchem GSK2126458 immunodeficiency virus infection, hepatitis B, and hemophilia were excluded. A control group was matched in a 2:1 ratio with the hepatitis-C group for age, body-mass index, sex, year of surgery, and medical comorbidities, including diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and immunosuppressive


Results: In the group of patients with hepatitis C who were managed with total hip arthroplasty, six patients (15%) had wound complications requiring oral antibiotics or wound irrigation and debridement and four hips (10%) had mechanical complications, including implant loosening or dislocation. In the control group, three patients (3.8%) had wound complications requiring oral antibiotics or irrigation and debridement

and three patients (3.8%) had mechanical complications, including dislocation, peri prosthetic femoral fracture, and implant failure. In the group of patients with hepatitis C who underwent total knee arthroplasty, three patients (9.4%) had mechanical complications, including loosening and pen-prosthetic fracture requiring revision. Selleck GW786034 In the control group, three patients (4.7%) had wound complications, one (1.6%) had a deep infection requiring two-stage revision, and one (1.6%) underwent revision because of a mechanical problem. The combined hepatitis-C group had significantly longer hospital stays and higher rates of surgical and mechanical complications, reoperation, and revision.


Patients with hepatitis C undergoing joint arthroplasty had a higher rate of surgical complications and a longer hospital stay. The reason for the higher rate of complications in this group of patients is unknown, and further investigation is needed. Patients with hepatitis C should be counseled about the potential for PLX4032 a higher incidence of postoperative complications prior to undergoing joint arthroplasty.”
“Purpose of reviewExtracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been employed as a management strategy to support the failing pulmonary allograft following lung transplantation. We review the indications, technical considerations, management strategies, and outcomes of using ECMO after lung transplantation.Recent findingsECMO is typically indicated for early pulmonary allograft failure despite optimized conventional support measures.

Herein, we will critically review existing evidence for a potenti

Herein, we will critically review existing evidence for a potential contribution of portally drained free fatty acids and/or cytokines to the development of hepatic insulin resistance.”
“We present a case concerning a 48 year-old man, who had complaints about ocular pains and an unpleasant feeling, which had started two days before admission. It was as if there was “”something moving in his left eye.”" The examination showed an extremely motile white worm, which was wrapped in concentric circles around the limb in the subconjunctival space of the patient’s left eye.

It was identified as the adult female form of Dirofilaria repens. The patient had a normal clinical finding, except eosinophilia. Ocular filariasis is this website as a possibility to think about, even when the cases are not in a typically endemic area and with no specific subjective complains.”
“Injection therapy and denervation procedures are commonly used in the management of chronic low-back pain (LBP) despite uncertainty Selleckchem MGCD0103 regarding their effectiveness and safety. To provide an

evaluation of the current evidence associated with the use of these procedures, a systematic review was performed. Existing systematic reviews were screened, and the Cochrane Back Review Group trial register was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Studies were included if they recruited adults with chronic LBP, evaluated the use of injection therapy or denervation procedures and measured at least one clinically relevant outcome (such as pain or functional status). Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility and risk of bias (RoB). A meta-analysis was performed with clinically homogeneous studies, and the GRADE approach was used to determine the quality of evidence. In total, 27 RCTs were included, 14 on injection therapy and 13 on denervation procedures. 18 (66%) of the studies were determined

to have a low RoB. Because of clinical heterogeneity, Danusertib only two comparisons could be pooled. Overall, there is only low to very low quality evidence to support the use of injection therapy and denervation procedures over placebo or other treatments for patients with chronic LBP. However, it cannot be ruled out that in carefully selected patients, some injection therapy or denervation procedures may be of benefit.”
“Background and aimsBupropion was introduced for smoking cessation following a pivotal trial showing that it gave improved efficacy over the nicotine patch and also suggesting combination treatment was beneficial. We tested in clinical practice for an effectiveness difference between bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), whether the combination improves effectiveness and whether either treatment might be more beneficial for certain subgroups of smokers.

DesignOpen-label randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up.

SettingFour UK National Health Service (NHS) smoking cessation clinics.

Moreover, it appears that low maternal BMI, and not Asian ethnici

Moreover, it appears that low maternal BMI, and not Asian ethnicity, is an independent risk factor for the detection of these echogenic fetal findings.”
“Background: Revascularization with emergency stent placement in patients with acute middle cerebral artery occlusion is still controversial in Japan. Methods: We placed balloon-expandable coronary bare stents in 3 patients in whom revascularization was not obtained after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy (IV t-PA) for acute ischemic stroke (middle cerebral artery M1 occlusion). Results: Patient 1 was an 87-year-old woman with left hemiplegia. Her National Institutes of

GANT61 supplier Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) was 12, and her magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighted image Alberta Stroke Programme Early Computed Tomography Score (MRI DWI-ASPECTS) was 8. Adequate revascularization was not obtained with IV t-PA and adjunctive percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for right M1 occlusion, and a stent was placed 368 minutes after onset. Her Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Trial (TIMI) score was 2. After 90 days, her modified Rankin scale (mRS) score was 4. Patient 2 was a

65-year-old JIB-04 clinical trial woman with left hemiplegia. Her NIHSS score was 16, and MRI DWI-ASPECTS was 9. A stent was placed 337 minutes after onset after IV t-PA and adjunctive PTA for right M1 occlusion. Her TIMI score was 3. After 90 days, her mRS score was 3. Patient 3 was a 61-year-old woman with left hemiplegia. Her NIHSS score was 18, and MRI DWI-ASPECTS score was 7. Arterial dissection was found after IV t-PA and adjunctive PTA for the right M1 occlusion, so a stent was placed 312 minutes after onset. Her TIMI score was 2. After 90 days, her mRS score was 0. Conclusions: Revascularization with emergency stent placement seems likely to be successful in patients with acute middle cerebral artery occlusion, but clinical symptoms do not always improve in some cases and care is needed in selecting patients for the

“The authors report on 2 cases of pediatric generalized dystonia with a DYT1 mutation; the patients, an 11-year-old girl and a 9-year-old boy, underwent chronic, pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi). The dystonic postures in both cases showed dramatic improvements with pallidal DBS, but each patient’s symptoms gradually recurred within a year, irrespective Selleck JPH203 of exhaustive readjustments of the stimulation settings. After the recurrence of the dystonic symptoms, the DBS leads were replaced within the GPi in one patient (Case 1) and additional DBS leads were implanted into the bilateral subthalamic nuclei in the other patient (Case 2). Neither measure produced any further clinical benefit, and the patient in Case 2 died of status dystonicus 2 days after reoperation. These findings suggest that early pallidal DBS for pediatric dystonia is indeed effective, although there are some cases in which its therapeutic effect is lost.

A set of 25 features of the nuclei is used in the classification

A set of 25 features of the nuclei is used in the classification of the biopsies by four different classifiers. The complete diagnostic procedure was tested on 737 microscopic images of fine needle biopsies obtained from patients and achieved 98.51% effectiveness. The results presented in this paper demonstrate selleck that a computerized medical diagnosis system based on our method would be effective, providing valuable, accurate diagnostic information.”
“BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for

ethyl ester forms.

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the safety and lipid-altering efficacy in subjects with severe hypertriglyceridemia of an investigational

pharmaceutical omega-3 free fatty acid (OM3-FFA) containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

METHODS: This was a multinational, selleck compound double-blind, randomized, out-patient study. Men and women with triglycerides (TGs )>= 500 mg/dL, but <2000 mg/dL, took control (olive oil [OO] 4 g/d; n = 99), OM3-FFA 2 g/d (plus OO 2 g/d; n = 100), OM3-FFA 3 g/d (plus OO 1 g/d; n = 101), or OM3-FFA 4 g/d (n = 99) capsules for 12 weeks in combination with the National Cholesterol Education Program Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet.

RESULTS: Fasting serum TGs changed from baseline by 25.9% (P <.01 vs OO), -25.5% (P <.01 vs 00), and -30.9% (P <.001 vs OO) with 2, 3, and 4 g/d OM3-FFA, respectively, compared with 4.3% with OO. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), total cholesterol-to-HDLC ratio, very low-density

lipoprotein cholesterol, remnant-like particle cholesterol, apolipoprotein CIII, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase KPT-8602 A(2), and arachidonic acid were significantly lowered (P <.05 at each OM3-FFA dosage vs OO); and plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were significantly elevated (P <.001 at each OM3-FFA dosage vs OO). With OM3-FFA 2 and 4 g/d (but not 3 g/d), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased compared with OO (P <.05 vs OO). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein responses with OM3-FFA did not differ significantly from the OO response at any dosage. Fewer subjects reported any adverse event with OO vs OM3-FFA, but frequencies across dosage groups were similar. Discontinuation due to adverse event, primarily gastrointestinal, ranged from 5% to 7% across OM3-FFA dosage groups vs 0% for OO.”
“Aims To verify the relationship between enuresis in childhood and the type of urinary incontinence in adults, considering the gender and age. Methods In this retrospective cohort study the database used contained the records of patients who had with urinary complaints and underwent urodynamic studies in the period from 1999 to 2008. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted for the type of UI. Results A total of 661 patient records were analyzed, 585 (88.5%) women and 76 (11.

Study design Twenty intraosseous solid ameloblastomas and 10 int

Study design. Twenty intraosseous solid ameloblastomas and 10 intraosseous AOTs were evaluated regarding immunohistochemical expression of MMP-7 and -26 in the epithelium and stroma.

Results. There was no statistically significant difference in MMP-7 and -26 expression between the epithelium of ameloblastomas (P = .50) and AOTs (P = .90). Stromal staining for MMP-7 was evident in all see more cases. For MMP-26, stromal staining was observed in 65% of ameloblastomas and 50% of AOTs, and this difference was not statistically significant (P = .69).

Conclusion. The marked expression of these matrilysins suggests their role in the process of tissue remodeling and growth in the studied tumors, but it does

not relate to the their distinct patterns of aggressiveness. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 108: 417-424)”
“The morphology of polymer-dispersed

liquid crystal (PDLC) has a major impact on its electro-optic properties. The PDLC was prepared by photochemical polymerization from UV-curable monomers/crosslinking agent/initiator/LC mixture. The influences of crosslinking agents on the PDLC system had been studied. The microstructures of the PDLC were strongly influenced by the insertion of polyethylene glycol (600) find more diacrylate (PEGDA 600) crosslinker, relatively long and flexible branch, and diethylene glycol diacrylate (DEGDA) cross-linker along the network bone. The relative weight ratio of crosslinking agents and polymerization temperature had a significant effect on the LC domain size, and which resulted in influencing the electro-optic properties of PDLC. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 3434-3440, 2010″
“Background: Most malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect Plasmodium falciparum and an antigen common to the four species. Plasmodium vivax-specific RDTs target P. vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH). Previous observations of false positive Pv-pLDH test lines in P. falciparum samples incited to the present study, which assessed P. vivax-specific RDTs for the occurrence of false positive Pv-pLDH

lines in P. falciparum samples.

Methods: Nine P. vivax-specific click here RDTs were tested with 85 P. falciparum samples of high (>= 2%) parasite density. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were ruled out by real-time PCR. The RDTs included two-band (detecting Pv-pLDH), three-band (detecting P. falciparum-antigen and Pv-pLDH) and four-band RDTs (detecting P. falciparum, Pv-pLDH and pan-pLDH).

Results: False positive Pv-pLDH lines were observed in 6/9 RDTs (including two-three-and four-band RDTs). They occurred in the individual RDT brands at frequencies ranging from 8.2% to 29.1%. For 19/85 samples, at least two RDT brands generated a false positive Pv-pLDH line. Sixteen of 85 (18.8%) false positive lines were of medium or strong line intensity.