2006) The identification

of prebiotically plausible mole

2006). The identification

of prebiotically plausible molecules that can influence the physical and chemical characteristics of fatty acid vesicles is essential for understanding membrane chemistry of 4SC-202 solubility dmso the early Earth. A recent study (Cape et al. 2011) confirmed the ability of NVP-LDE225 ic50 naptho[2,3a]pyrene and perylene to photochemically induce trans-membrane charge transport thereby acting as a primitive pigment system (Deamer 1992). However, these hydrophobic PAHs could not be incorporated in high concentrations in fatty acid bilayers and had no measurable effect on membrane stability. In the study reported here, we investigated the possibility that oxidized PAH derivatives can act as membrane stabilizers by reducing CVC or membrane permeability to small solutes. We successfully incorporated several selleck inhibitor oxidized PAH derivatives in fatty acid membranes as confirmed by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. Both 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid could be incorporated in up to 1:10 PAH/DA ratios while 1-pyrene carboxaldehyde,

9-fluorenone, 1,4-chrysene quinone and pyrene could be incorporated in lower ratios (see Table 1). Size distribution was determined by DLS (data not shown) and showed a very heterogeneous population of vesicles ranging in diameter from 100 nm to 5 μm with a mean diameter of approximately 200 nm. PAH incorporation had no measurable effect on vesicle size or morphology. Table 1 List of performed experiments Sample Maximum solubility ratio (PAH/DA) mM DA at CVC Incorporation confirmed by fluorescence microscopy Permeability assay performed decanoic acid x 30.5 ± 2.5 x x decanoic acid + fatty acid mix x 24.0 ± 0.75 x v DA + 1-decanol 1:10a 18.9 x x DA + 1,4 chrysene quinone 1:200 33 yes x DA + pyrene 1:200   yes x DA + 9-fluorenone 1:100 32.0 nob x DA +

1-PCA 1:200 30.7 yes x DA + 1-hydroxypyrene + FA mix 1:10 20.7 ± 1.4 yes v DA + 1-PCA + FA mix 1:50 (10x freeze-thaw) 23.7 ± 0.5 yes v DA + 9-fluorenone + FA mix 1:20 25.0 ± 1.1 nob x DA + 9-ACA + FA mix 1:10 24.3 ± 2.2 yes v All mixed membranes tested. Addition of C6-C9 fatty acids lowers CVC (Cape et al. 2011). 9-fluorenone incorporation cannot be visualized by epifluorescence microscopy Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase due to quenching (Biczók et al. 1997) a(Monnard & Deamer 2003) b(Biczók et al., 1997) Incorporation of 1-hydroxypyrene allowed vesicles to be stable at pH 8.1, while pure fatty acid samples only formed micelles. The stabilization of vesicle suspensions at alkaline pH due to hydrogen bonding of decanoate with a hydroxyl group was previously established for decanol and glycerol monodecanoate (Monnard and Deamer 2003; Maurer et al. 2009). Measurements of CVC values by conductimetric titration produced reproducible values that coincided with the concentrations at which vesicle solutions become completely transparent.

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