Down-regulation of cyclin D1 along with up-regulation of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 have previously been suggested to be the mechanism behind mTOR inhibitor induced cell cycle arrest [26, 27]. We got the same results in GC-resistant Molt-4 cells. We also found that compared with rapamycin treatment alone, combined treatment with Dex decreased the expression level of cyclin A, which would also contribute to the effect of cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. It’s an exciting finding that rapamycin can reverse GC resistance in T-ALL cell lines, although CH5183284 the exact mechanism of GC resistance has poorly understood yet. GC resistance may caused
by lack of GR up-regulation upon GC exposure in leukemia cell
lines . However, evidence showed that GC resistance in childhood ALL cannot be attributed to an inability of resistant cells to up-regulate the expression of the GR upon GC exposure, nor to differences in GR promoter usage . Our studies demonstrated that rapamycin’s reversion of GC resistance in T-ALLs was not through modulation of GR expression. Bcl-2 selleck inhibitor family members are critical regulators of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and play critical roles in GC-induced apoptosis . The members of this family can be divided into two groups, the anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, and the pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bax and Bim. The down-regulation of Mcl-1 was recently shown to be critical for sensitizing GC-induced apoptosis in lymphoid malignancy cells . Our studies showed that in Molt-4 cells rapamycin can inhibit Mcl-1 and rapamycin and Dex have a synergistic induction of Bax and Bim, suggesting that rapamycin sensitizes GC-induced apoptosis in T-ALL cells by modulation
of apoptosis related proteins. In conclusion, Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase we show in this study that rapamycin enhances Dex induced apoptosis by inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic program. Clinical trials of rapamycin and its derivates have been buy Belnacasan completed or are ongoing for the treatment of hematologic malignancies . Therefore, combination of these drugs with current ALL protocols might be an attracting new therapeutic approach for GC-resistant T-ALL patients. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Dr. Stephan W. Morris for providing Molt-4 and Jurkat cells lines and Dr. E. Brad Thompson for CEM-C1-15 and CEM-C7-14 cell lines. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (30670895). References 1. Greenstein S, Ghias K, Krett NL, Rosen ST: Mechanism of glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis in hematological malignancies. Clin Cancer Res 2002, 8: 1681–1694.PubMed 2. Schrappe M: Evolution of BFM trials for childhood ALL. Ann Hematol 2004, 83 (suppl 1) : S121-S123.PubMed 3.