This was done under close supervision and mentorship by senior faculty in Emergency Surgery (YI, TM, KY, and SH). The dynamic nature of the bleeding simulation is easily seen in the Additional file 1: Vedio S1;
Additional file 2: Vedio S2. Participants were given the opportunity to repeat the simulation, and to attempt different approaches to achieve hemostasis. The laboratory session lasted about 5 hours total, with each participant spending time with each of the three organs. Figure 1 A Renal cortex injury is made in a kidney connected to a circulation pump with saline circulating through the renal vessels. VX-680 cost Figure 2 An ex-vivo porcine inferior vena cava (IVC) is connected to a circulation pump for teaching hemostatic techniques. Figure 3 An ex-vivo porcine heart is connected to a circulation pump for teaching hemostatic techniques. Following the training, participants were surveyed regarding their confidence and their opinion of the training. The survey used a 5-point Likert scale, with 1 indicating low confidence and 5 indicating the highest confidence. These results are shown in SBE-��-CD cell line Tables 1 and 2. Table 2 Participant Evaluation of the Course Question Mean Score ± SD I understood the goals and objectives for this trauma ex-vivo training program 4.63 0.647 My interest in trauma care has increased 4.75 0.442 I am satisfied with this training 4.54 0.721
I would recommend this training to my colleagues 4.75 0.531 I would like to repeat this training 4.79 WH-4-023 0.415 Repeating this training would make me more capable in torso trauma surgery 4.75 0.442 Scores shown on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 5 = strongly agree). SD, Standard Deviation Statistical Analysis Survey data was analyzed by Wilcoxson rank-sign test (Excel, Microsoft Corp, Redmond WA USA), and is reported
with mean, standard deviation, and p-value comparing the scores before and after training. Results Twenty-four residents participated in this training program and performed hemostatic procedures. The training level of the residents included: PGY 2, 16 (67%), PGY 3, 6 (25.0%), PGY4, 1 (4%), and PGY5, 1 (4%). Their experience in trauma surgery as surgeon Grape seed extract or assistant prior to this program included: no cases for 8 participants (33%), 1 ~ 5 cases for 13 participants (55%), 6 ~ 10 cases for 2 participants (8%), and 15 or more cases for 1 participant (4%). Residents were divided into groups and the program for each group was conducted at a different time, to enable close faculty mentorship. In total, the sessions were conducted eight separate times. A questionnaire was given to all participants both before and after the program. Responses showed a significant (p < .01) improvement in self-confidence (Table 1) after the program compared to before the training.