These organizational properties extend topographic principles to

These organizational properties extend topographic principles to the representation of higher-order abstract features in the association cortex.”
“Folic acid and vitamin B-12 deficiencies are associated with high reproductive risks ranging from infertility to fetal structural defects. The aim of

the present study was to examine the effects of preconceptional omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic Apoptosis Compound Library ic50 acid) to a micronutrient-deficient diet on the reproductive cycle in Wistar rats. Female rats were divided into five groups from birth and throughout pregnancy: a control group, a folic acid-deficient (FD) group, a vitamin B-12-deficient (BD) group, a folic acid-deficient + omega-3 fatty acid-supplemented (FDO) group and a vitamin B-12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid-supplemented (BDO) group. Dams were killed on gestation Day 20 and their ovaries and mammary glands were dissected out and subjected to histological examination. Maternal micronutrient deficiency (FD and BD groups) resulted in an abnormal oestrous cycle (P < 0.001), whereas omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (FDO and BDO groups) restored the oestrous cycle to normal. There were fewer corpora lutea in the ovaries of FD rats compared with controls. In addition, rats in both the FD and BD groups exhibited an absence of lactating

ducts in their mammary glands compared with controls. The findings of the present study indicate, for the first time, that maternal micronutrient deficiency affects SB273005 cell line selleck the oestrous cycle and morphology of the ovary and

mammary glands. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation ameliorated these effects. This may have implications for infertility and pregnancy outcomes.”
“MRI has allowed the study of mineral deposition in the brain throughout life and in disease. However, studies differ in their reporting of minerals on MRI for reasons that are unclear.\n\nWe conducted a systematic review from 1985 to July 2011 to determine the appearance of iron, calcium, copper and manganese on MRI and CT and their reliability. We assessed which imaging investigations provided the most consistent results compared with histology.\n\nOf 325 papers on minerals imaging, we included 46 studies that confirmed findings either directly or indirectly using a non-imaging method such as histology. Within this group, there was inconsistency in the identification of iron probably because of changes in its paramagnetic properties during its degradation. Iron appeared consistently hypointense only on T2*-weighted MRI, and along with calcified areas, hyperattenuated on CT. Appearance of copper, calcium and manganese, although consistently reported as hyperintense on T1-weighted MRI, was confirmed histologically in few studies.

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