There was an increase in the mRNA of seven genes in the neocortex of mice I h after treatment with FG7142. In addition, there was an increase in the mRNAs of five of the seven genes (Fos, Cyr61, Btg2, Adamts1, and Gem) in the neocortex of mice exposed to the stress for 1 h.
The up-regulation of these five genes Selleck Anlotinib by both FG7142 and immobilization stress indicates that these genes may be involved in the stress-responsive system. Dysfunctions of the system may be associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. (C) 2008 Elsevier
Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Recent evidence suggests that rats require an intact hippocampus in order to recognize familiar objects when they encounter them again in a different context. The two experiments reported here further examined how changes in context affect rats’ performance on the novel-object preference (NOP) test of object-recognition memory, and how those effects interact with the effects of HPC damage.
Rats with HPC lesions and control rats received NOP testing in either the same context in which they had previously encountered sample objects, or in a different but equally familiar context. In Experiment 1, the two contexts had very few MLN0128 molecular weight overlapping cues within or outside the apparatus; thus, the differences between them were global. Consistent with previous results, control rats showed a novel-object preference in both the unchanged and (globally) changed contexts, whereas rats with HPC lesions displayed a preference only in the unchanged context. In Experiment 2, the context shift included only local features proximal to the test objects. The main results were the reverse of Experiment 1-rats with HPC lesions displayed a novel-object preference in both the unchanged and (locally) changed contexts, whereas control rats displayed a preference only in the unchanged context. The findings are consistent with the view that HPC damage does not cause a general inability to recognize objects,
nor an inability to encode or store a representation of the context in which the objects are encountered. They suggest instead that HPC damage impairs Batimastat the ability to remember specific locations of familiar objects within a particular context.”
“Which brain sites represent the final form of motor commands that encode temporal patterns of muscle activities? Here, we show the possible brain sites which have activity equivalent to the motor commands with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that short-temporal patterns of movements or stimuli are reflected in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses and we searched for regions representing the response. Participants performed two temporal patterns of tapping and/or listened to the same patterns of auditory stimuli in a 3T fMRI.