Increased activity of the HPA axis and GC exposure has been sugge

Increased activity of the HPA axis and GC exposure has been suggested to facilitate the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nonetheless, different stressors can produce distinct effects on food intake and may support different directions of food learning e.g. avoidance or acceptance. This study examined whether interoceptive (LiCl) and exendin-4) and restraint stress (RS) support similar or distinct food learning. Female rats were exposed to different stressors after their consumption of a palatable food (butter icing). After four palatable food-stress pairings, distinct intakes of the butter icing were observed in rats treated with different stressors. Rats that received

butter icing Tucidinostat followed by intraperitoneal injections of LiCl (42.3 mg/kg) and exendin-4 (10 mu g/kg) completely avoided the palatable food with subsequent presentations. In contrast, rats experiencing RS paired with the palatable food increased their consumption of butter icing across trials and did so to a greater degree than rats receiving

saline injections. These data indicate that interoceptive and psychosocial stressors support conditioned food avoidance and acceptance, respectively. Examination of c-Fos immunoreactivity revealed distinct neural activation by interoceptive and psychosocial stressors that could provide the neural basis underlying opposite direction of food acceptance selleck compound learning. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of IBRO.”
“In the present study, bacterial growth in a rich media is analysed in a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) framework. It is demonstrated that the SDE formulation and smoothened

state estimates provide a systematic framework for data driven model improvements, using random walk hidden states. Bacterial growth is limited by the available substrate and the inclusion selleck products of diffusion must obey this natural restriction. By inclusion of a modified logistic diffusion term it is possible to introduce a diffusion term flexible enough to capture both the growth phase and the stationary phase, while concentration is restricted to the natural state space (substrate and bacteria non-negative). The case considered is the growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus in a rich media. It is found that a hidden state is necessary to capture the lag phase of growth, and that a flexible logistic diffusion term is needed to capture the random behaviour of the growth model. Further, it is concluded that the Monod effect is not needed to capture the dynamics of bacterial growth in the data presented. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Leukocytosis (raised concentration of white cells in the blood) is commonly associated with infection or inflammation, but can occur in a wide variety of other conditions. Leukocytosis has also been linked with increased mortality and morbidity in a number of studies.

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