Figure 4 Phylogeny of RNA phages The phylogenetic analysis was b

Figure 4 Phylogeny of RNA phages. The phylogenetic analysis was based on the complete genomic RNA sequences (left) and amino acid sequences of the replicase (right) which is the most conserved of all ssRNA phage proteins. Trees were constructed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and tested using the bootstrap method with 500 replicates. The bootstrap values are expressed as percentages next to the nodes. RNA and protein sequences were aligned using MUSCLE [49] and QNZ cost the phylogenetic trees were constructed in program MEGA5 [50]. Although all Leviviridae phages use pili for attachment, there is a marked difference between the types

of pili they utilize. The type IV pili used by phages AP205, ϕCb5 and PP7 are produced via a genome-encoded type II secretion pathway [51], whereas the plasmid-borne conjugative pili that the other phages utilize belong to a type IV secretion system [52]. Both systems share some functional similarities, like a retractable pilus and a membrane pore, but are thought to have evolved independently [53]. Therefore a jump from one to the other type of pili had to occur at some point in the Leviviridae history. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ancestral phage infected cells via type IV pili, like phages AP205, ϕCb5 and PP7 are doing today and a PP7-like virus then might have evolved the ability to bind to some kind of conjugative

pili and still sustain infectivity. Consequently, all of the specialized enough plasmid-dependent RNA phages we know today would be descendants of this ancestral virus. Conclusions We have determined and characterized the genome sequence SAHA mouse of IncM plasmid-dependent phage M and shown that it resembles the plasmid-specific leviviruses in many ways but has an atypical location of the lysis gene. It is a valuable addition to

the growing number of sequenced Leviviridae genomes and provides a better view on the diversity and evolution within this phage family. Methods Phage propagation and purification Bacteriophage M and its host E.coli J53(RIP69) were obtained from Félix d’Hérelle Reference Center for bacterial viruses, Laval University, Quebec, Canada (catalog numbers HER218 and HER1218, respectively). J53(RIP69) cells were grown in LB medium containing 6 μg/ml tetracycline overnight at 37 °C without agitation. To propagate the phage, 0.5 ml of the host cell suspension and 10 μl of phage selleck chemicals lysate (approximately 1010 pfu/ml) were spotted on 1.5% LB agar plates, overlaid with 15-20 ml of molten 0.7% LB agar cooled to 45 °C, mixed by swirling and incubated overnight at 30 °C. The next morning, top agar layers from several plates were scraped off, transferred to centrifuge tubes and centrifuged for 20 minutes at 18500 g. Supernatant was collected and phage particles were precipitated by addition of sodium chloride and PEG 6000 to concentrations of 0.

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