Actin fibers were visualized by rhodamine-phalloidin The left pa

Actin fibers were visualized by rhodamine-phalloidin. The left panels show MC3T3-E1 cells incubated with each culture supernatant and the right panels show the cells incubated with DNT. The experiments were performed

three times and representative results are shown. Bar, 5 μm. Discussion Here, we found that DNT temporarily associated with the FN see more network on cells. FN, a major component of the ECM, is mainly produced by fibroblasts and organized into a fibrillar network through binding to cell surface receptors, integrins [14–16]. A DNT mutant deficient in transglutaminase activity was also associated with the FN network (data not shown), indicating that Selleckchem CYT387 the enzymatic activity of DNT is not required for the association. Because deletion mutants of DNT, in which any of the regions is missing, and heat-inactivated DNT did not associated with the FN network (data not shown), the overall structure of the toxin may be crucial to the association. DNT did not colocalize with the WZB117 concentration FN network generated by MRC-5 cells, suggesting that it interacts

with FN not directly, but via another cellular component. Nidogen-2 in an N-terminally truncated could be a candidate for the component, because it was present in only the fraction which induced the association of DNT with the FN network on MRC-5 cells, whereas full-length nidogen-2 did not. Although its biological importance is not fully understood, nidogen-2 is known to interact with various molecules in the ECM [17]. The nature of the truncated nidogen-2 is currently unknown. How the truncated nidogen-2 mediates the association between DNT and the FN network is not known either. At least, we observed that nidogen-2 was colocalized with not only FN but also DNT in the fibrillar structure. SBED-DNT crosslinked to two distinct

components in addition to FN (Fig. 1C). These two components might be other candidates to intermediate the association between DNT and the FN network. However, they could not be isolated by combinations of anion- and cation-exchange chromatographies, probably because of their instability. buy Erastin In addition, the living cells, some cell membrane proteins, and/or the fibrillar structure of FN may be also required, because we could not reproduce the association of DNT with FN in the presence of the culture supernatant of FN-null cells by in vitro techniques such as ELISA and immunoprecipitation (data not shown). DNT may associate with the FN network by a complicated mechanism involving the truncated nidogen-2 and other cellular components. We are now conducting further work to elucidate this issue. The association of DNT with the FN network was seen in not only DNT-sensitive cells but also insensitive cells, which indicates that the FN network neither serves as a receptor for the toxin nor is involved in the intoxicating procedures of the toxin on sensitive cells.

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