We observed that A488-labelled h-S100A9 treatment produced an inc

We observed that A488-labelled h-S100A9 treatment produced an increment of fluorescence in the cytosolic fraction, which was significantly reduced upon Neratinib chloroquine pre-treatment. To prevent any artefacts caused by h-S100A9 non-specific binding on the cell surface, we measured fluorescence also for the plasma membrane fraction and found only a small increase of fluorescence value, confirming the specificity of the assay. In this study we have investigated the pro-inflammatory effect of murine and human S100A9 protein. Our data show that S100A9 and LPS activated NF-κB and promoted

cytokine secretion in qualitatively different ways. However, there were only minor differences between S100A9 and LPS signals regarding induction of the NF-κB signalling pathway. For this work, it was important to use pure and controlled human and mouse S100A9 and LPS as previous studies have shown that LPS or lipoprotein contaminants could affect the results of the experiments.[29, 49] As both murine and human S100A9 was purified from bacteria, the proteins must be purified using protocols, which minimize the presence of LPS contaminants. To avoid this problem we used tested LPS-free S100A9 batches in which the highest amount of possible LPS contamination was below 0·1 EU/ml. However, to further confirm the successful removal of LPS contaminants, we added polymyxin

selleckchem B to h-S100A9-stimulated cultures. Under these conditions, we could observe a minor inhibition of the h-S100A9 effect, whereas the LPS response was completely blocked. The inhibition of the h-S100A9 effect could be a result of the polymyxin non-specific effect during the 48 hr incubation because stimulation with 1 ng/ml TNF-α was also slightly inhibited (see Supplementary material, Fig. S1c). The almost complete loss of biological activity after heat-denaturation of h-S100A9 at 80°, compared Gefitinib in vivo with the LPS response which was insensitive to heating, provided further evidence that the biological activity

of h-S100A9 was not the result of LPS contamination. We used this protocol of heat inactivation because Tsan et al.[29] have shown that using heat inactivation at boiling temperatures can also inactivate LPS activity. In addition, because m-S100A9-induced cytokine secretion was abolished in TLR4-KO BM-DC, lipoprotein contamination of the m-S100A9 preparations was unlikely. Concerning the TLR4 ligand LPS, it was important to exclude lipoprotein contamination, which could potentially activate the TLR2 pathway. In this case, we titrated the activity of a highly purified preparation of lipoprotein-free LPS (InvivoGen) and could observe the following: (i) LPS could induce NF-κB activity showing a plateau at 100 ng/ml (data not showed); (ii) LPS-mediated IκBα degradation was weak (Fig. 5) even at 1 μg/ml (data not showed); (iii) we confirmed that LPS preparation was completely devoid of cytokine-inducing activity in TLR4-KO BM-DC.

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