Variations in the DA transporter (DAT1) gene (SLC6A3) regulate DA

Variations in the DA transporter (DAT1) gene (SLC6A3) regulate DA availability in striatum. Compared to DAT1 9/10-repeat carriers, homozygosity of the DAT1 10-repeat allele has been 4-Hydroxytamoxifen solubility dmso related to less active dopaminergic pathways. A group of younger adults received 4 weeks of computerized adaptive training on several WM tasks. All participants improved their performance as a function of training. However, DAT1 9/10-repeat carriers showed larger training-related gains than DAT1 10-repeat carriers

in visuospatial WM. By contrast, the two groups were indistinguishable in baseline WM performance as well as in a variety of tasks assessing different cognitive abilities. This pattern of results provides novel evidence that WM plasticity is a more sensitive indicator of DAT1 gene-related cognitive differences than single-assessment performance scores. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neuronal cell cultures on Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) provide an essential experimental tool for studying 4SC-202 datasheet the connectivity and long-term activity of complex neuronal networks. MEA studies are generally based on the analysis of mixed neuronal populations constituted by a large number of cultured cells with cell type

composition and connectivity patterns which are quite unpredictable a priori. In this work, we propose a different approach which consists of assembling on MEAs neuronal circuits formed by individually identifiable C1, C3, and B2 Helix neurons. Cells were plated under conditions of controlled number and position to form neuronal networks of defined

composition. We performed multi-site electrophysiological recordings, and we characterized the firing dynamics. By means of cross-correlation analysis, we studied the electrophysiological properties of MEA-coupled microcircuits and characterized their activity patterns. We showed how the synaptic connectivity, actually observed in polysynaptic circuits of C1, C3 and B2 neurons, correlates well with the expected connectivity of C1-B2, B2-B2 and B2-C3 cell pairs as previously reported in conventional electrophysiological studies in culture. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which mediates neuronal growth, neuroprotection and synaptic modulation, is expressed in neurons and glial cells. The Selleckchem LY294002 present study investigated the expression of BDNF in response to the activation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) by (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) in rat C6 glioma cells. The increase in BDNF mRNA in DHPG-stimulated cells, which peaked by 12 h after DHPG exposure, was attenuated by the mGluR5 inhibitor MPEP, but not by the mGluR1 inhibitor CPCCOEt. DHPG-induced BDNF mRNA expression reduced in cultures pretreated with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, GFX, but not with calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor, KN-93.

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