The lipophilic β-blockers (eg, propranolol and metoprolol) cross

The lipophilic β-blockers (eg, propranolol and metoprolol) cross the blood-brain barrier much more easily than do nonlipophilic β-blockers (eg, atenolol), and the lipophilic

β-blockers are thought to be associated with higher rates of selleckchem neuropsychiatrie consequences. The association between the use of β-blockers and the development of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depression has long been described; yet, it remains controversial. Many case reports and several small reviews have linked propranolol with depression,7,11 and a trial by Thiessen et al12 found that treatment with propranolol was associated with higher rates of antidepressant prescriptions than with other β-blockers (both lipophilic and hydrophilic). Similarly, Hallas13 found that new propranolol prescriptions were associated with high rates of new prescriptions for antidepressants, compared with prescription of diuretics. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Further, a study that compared quality of life among patients taking capropril, enalapril, atenolol, and propranolol found that propranolol was associated with significantly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical lower scores on a global assessment of psychological functioning.14

In contrast, a randomized, controlled trial in 312 patients who received propranolol found no association between this agent and depression at 1 year.15 Furthermore, several of the trials listed above did not take into account confounding variables (eg, benzodiazepine use and frequency of outpatient visits) that were found to account for the apparent relationship between use of β-blockers and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the diagnosis of depression; in one study there was no association between use of β-blockers and depression after making this correction.16 Finally, a comprehensive review of more than 5800 patients prescribed propranolol

found that this agent was rarely associated with depressive symptoms, and that such symptoms usually only arose after long-term Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical use.17 When trials have been expanded to include use of other β-blockers,18-20 the majority of studies and reviews have found no association between β-blockers (as a class of medication) and the presence of depression. Furthermore, there has been mixed evidence that lipophilic β-blockers are more strongly associated with depression than are nonlipophilic agents.20 The most extensive analysis of the association between β-blockers and depression, however, was a meta-analysis of 15 trials (more than 35 000 patients).21 Ko and colleagues Cilengitide found that β-blockers, as a class, were not associated with a significant increase in reports of depressive symptoms; furthermore, there were no differences between outcomes following use of lipophilic and nonlipophilic agents. β-Blockers may be associated with adverse neuropsychiatrie effects other than depression. Sedation, and to a somewhat lesser degree, fatigue, have been associated with use of β-blockers, both lipophilic and hydrophilic.

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