The findings of this study suggest that common proverb interpreta

The findings of this study suggest that common proverb interpretation is greatly influenced by semantic dysfunction and that the use of proverbs for testing executive functions needs to include the interpretation of unfamiliar proverbs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Echis carinatus venom (EV) is a complex mixture of toxins that contribute to its lethality. EV proteolytic activity was analyzed by zymography, chromogenic assays, and SDS-PAGE. To understand the molecular mechanism of the envenomation, we investigated the in vitro effect of EV on human plasma proteins.

We looked for EV protein substrates and their proteolytic fragments. We analyzed EV proteolytic activity on standard proteins such as prothrombin or fibrinogen. To set up the optimal EV:plasma protein ratio conditions, plasma was incubated with EV (treated plasma), depleted Selleckchem AZD0156 of abundant proteins, and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Samples from control and treated plasma were also analyzed by 2-DE/MALDI-TOF MS, leading to the identification of four classes of plasma proteins cleaved by EV: proteases,

protease inhibitors, binding proteins, and transporters. EV mainly selleck chemical proteolyzes entire proteins but can also act on physiological fragments. In summary, the physiological effects of EV proteases involve other important processes in addition to blood coagulation; complement activation and hemoglobin metabolism are also affected. In particular, the cleavage of protease inhibitors appears to be the mechanism through which the venom neutralizes the body’s defenses.”
“Objective: Flucloronide Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution instigates an inflammatory response, resulting in vessel wall damage and scarring. Urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are integral components

of the fibrinolytic system, essential for venous thrombosis (VT) resolution. This study determined the vein wall response when exposed to increased and decreased plasmin activity.

Methods: A mouse inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation model in uPA -/- or PAI-1 -/- and their genetic wild types (B6/SvEv and C57/BL6, respectively) was used to create stasis thrombi, with tissue harvest at either 8 or 21 days. Tissue analysis included gene expression of vascular smooth muscle cells (alpha smooth muscle actin [ alpha SMA], SM22) and endothelial marker (CD31), by real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 activity by zymography, and vein wall collagen by picro-Sirius red histologic analysis. A P < .05 was considered significant.

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