Taken together, these facts suggest that activation of RF-produci

Taken together, these facts suggest that activation of RF-producing lymphocytes in CIA model occurs through IAI interactions with anti-BCII lymphocytes.\n\nThree populations of antibodies

were detected in the blood of arthritic rats: a population of antibodies reacting only with BCII, a population of antibodies reacting only with rat collagen (RCII) and a population of antibodies that can bind to both bovine and rat collagen. It was shown that RF in relation to anti-collagen autoantibodies act as anti-idiotype antibodies, and a comparative ATM/ATR targets analysis of antibody production in arthritic and resistant rats demonstrated that the level of anti-collagen autoantibody production depends on the level of RF production. This suggests that RF and RF-producing lymphocytes are involved in regulation of anti-collagen autoreactive lymphocyte activity through an IAI interaction mechanism. A direct activation of autoreactive anti-RCII lymphocytes by BCII cannot be excluded, but it can be supposed that induction of anti-collagen autoreactive lymphocytes needs a signal generated in IAI interactions by RF-producing lymphocytes. This hypothesis is based on the data obtained, and not only explains the mechanism

of autoreactive lymphocytes activation in the rat CIA model, but also indicates that the key regulatory element in the development of arthritis in animals is RF-producing lymphocytes. The results allow a new insight on the SNS-032 role of RF in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and on seeking more effective therapeutic MLN4924 inhibitor means. (C) 2009 Elsevier

GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Poliomyelitis is a disease of major public health importance. Since the launch of the Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative in 1988, considerable progress has been achieved globally. At present, the causative agent for the disease – poliovirus – remains endemic in only four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan). The poliovirus eradication plan, as outlined in the WHO strategic plan for 2004-2008, incorporates priority activities for each phase of the plan: (i) polio eradication certification for regions, (ii) oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation phase, and (iii) post-OPV phase. The ultimate goal to eventually stop all vaccination is, however, jeopardized by the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses and the risk of bioterrorism. In the post-eradication era, individual countries will be presented with guidelines on OPV cessation and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) usage. This paper, presented during the Asian Pacific Pediatric Association (APPA) meeting in Pattaya, Thailand from 20 to 22 July 2006, provides an update on the current global situation, focusing on the progress and challenges faced by different countries in their quest for poliovirus eradication. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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