“Purpose: To determine the prevalence and genetic basis of

“Purpose: To determine the prevalence and genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

Methods: One hundred and thirty (130) clinical isolates of S. aureus were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. Susceptibility to antibiotics (doxycycline, tetracycline and minocycline) was determined β-Nicotinamide inhibitor by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) evaluated on Muller-Hinton agar as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The tetracycline-resistant strains (TET-R) were screened

by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of four common tetracycline resistance determinants, viz, tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O).

Results: Sixty (46.0 %) of these isolates

were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) while 70 (54.0 %) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Seventy four (56.9 %) strains were resistant to tetracycline (TET-R), 30 (23.1 %) to minocycline and 23 (17.7 %) to doxycycline. A majority of the MRSA were resistant to tetracyclines and all the MSSA were sensitive to doxycycline and minocycline. The tet(K) gene was found in 58 isolates and tet(L) in one isolate. No tet(M) and tet(O) were detected.

Conclusion: This study indicates that resistance to tetracyclines is mainly by efflux pumps mediated by tet(K) in S. aureus in northwestern Pakistan.”
“Objective: The objectives of this study were to report the success rates for perforated punctual plug (PPP) in the management of acquired punctual stenosis GDC-0994 MAPK inhibitor and to evaluate the factors influencing success rates.

Design: find more This was a retrospective, cross-sectional,

comparative study.

Participants: There were 20 patients.

Methods: Twenty eyes of 20 patients who underwent PPP implantation for the management of acquired punctual stenosis and punctual obstruction were retrospectively evaluated regarding sex and age of the patients and the duration and severity of epiphora, associated blepharitis, and the success of treatment. In all patients, punctum dilation was performed carefully to prevent damage to the ampulla before the insertion of plugs. Perforated punctual plugs were removed 2 months after insertion.

Results: There were 7 cases of punctal stenosis, 9 cases of membranous obstruction, 2 punctal burns, 1 papilloma, and 1 nevus involving the punctum causing epiphora. The mean age of patients was 41.4 (SD, 3.9) years. The mean interval between the onset of epiphora and PPP implantation was 32.1 (SD, 10.7) months. Associated chronic blepharitis was detected in 13 eyes. Success was achieved in 17 eyes (85%). Patients whose procedures failed were older (67.7 vs 36.8, P = 0.019) and more likely to have blepharitis (100: 23.

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