It was recently proposed that temperature sensitivity of chemotax

It was recently proposed that temperature sensitivity of chemotaxis may be related to the observed low stability of biochemically reconstituted chemosensory complexes at high temperature [43]. However, we observed that common wild type E. coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110 remain chemotactic up to 42°C (Figure 3a-c), despite

having the same chemotaxis machinery as RP437. Consistent with that, the intracellular stability of receptor clusters, accessed by the dynamics of CheA exchange, showed no apparent decrease in stability at high temperature (Figure PD-0332991 in vitro 3d). Figure 3 Effects of temperature on chemotaxis and cluster stability. (a-b) Effects of incubation temperature on swarming ability of E. coli strains. Representative swarm plates show swarm rings formed by indicated strains at 34°C (a) and 42°C (b) after 5 hours. (c) Corresponding swarming efficiency at a function of temperature find more for strains RP437 (filled circles), W3110 (white squares) and MG1655 (white circles). Standard errors are indicated. (d) Exchange of YFP-CheAΔ258 at receptor clusters in strain VS102 at 20°C (filled circles, data from [37]) and at 39°C (white squares). Means of 10 to 20 experiments

are shown. Error bars represent standard errors. Grey shading is as in Figure 1. (e) Temperature effects of APR-246 price expression levels of chemotaxis proteins, represented here by chemoreceptors. Expression was detected by immunoblotting as described in Methods using αTar antibody that also recognizes well other chemoreceptors. In CheR+ CheB+ strains used here, each receptor runs as several bands corresponding to different states of modification. See Figure S1 for assignment of individual bands. These results suggest the downregulation of the chemotaxis gene expression as the most likely cause of the chemotaxis loss in RP437 at high temperature, consistent with the originally favoured explanation [47]. Indeed, under our growth conditions the

expression of both major chemoreceptors, Tar and Tsr, was at least 10 times lower at 42°C than at 34°C (Figure 3e), which is likely to reflect a general temperature effect on expression of all chemotaxis and flagellar genes in E. coli. Notably, a similar reduction in the receptor oxyclozanide levels was observed in all strains, demonstrating that the effect is not specific to the RP437-related strains. However, since the levels of chemotaxis proteins are generally much higher in MG1655 and W3110, these strains can apparently maintain sufficient expression even at 42°C, whereas protein levels in RP437 readily drop below the level that is necessary for chemotaxis [37, 45]. This explanation is further supported by the observation that a substantial degree of chemotaxis was retained at 42°C in the RP437-derived ΔflgM strain VS102, which has elevated levels of all chemotaxis proteins (Figure 3e).

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