However, a profound understanding and characterization of such patterns is still lacking.
Here, we theoretically investigate the influence of individuals’ mobility on the spatial structures emerging in LY2109761 ic50 rock-paper-scissors games. We devise a quantitative approach to analyze the spatial patterns self-forming in the course of the stochastic time evolution. For a paradigmatic model originally introduced by May and Leonard, within an interacting particle approach, we demonstrate that the system’s behavior-in the proper continuum limit-is aptly captured by a set of stochastic partial differential equations. The system’s stochastic dynamics is shown to lead to the emergence of entangled rotating spiral waves. While the spirals’ wavelength and spreading velocity is demonstrated to be accurately predicted by a (deterministic) find more complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, their entanglement results from the inherent stochastic nature of the system. These findings and our methods have important applications for understanding the formation of noisy patterns, e.g. in ecological and evolutionary contexts, and are also of relevance for the kinetics of (bio)-chemical reactions. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Since serotonin (5-HT) acts as neurotrophic factor, the use of fluoxetine (FLX) by mothers during pregnancy and/or lactation could disrupt brain
development of the progeny. To unveil if maternal FLX exposure could compromise the functional integrity of monoaminergic and GABA-ergic neurotransmission, the behavioral responses of male and female mouse pups to diethylpropion, apomorphine, 8-OH-DPAT and diazepam were evaluated. Swiss dams were gavaged daily with FLX (7.5 mg/kg) or tap water during pregnancy day zero to weaning (postnatal day 21). Pups were evaluated on postnatal day 40. The behavioral response to diethylpropion was assessed in the open-field and drug-induced stereotyped behavior; to apomorphine in the drug-induced stereotyped behavior; to diazepam, in
the elevated plus maze test and to 8-OH-DPAT in the open-field and forced swimming tests. Exposure to FIX did not influence any drug-induced behavioral response in males. Conversely, in females, FIX exposure significantly prevented diethylpropion-induced hyperactivity in the open-field and reduced stereotyped behavior induced selleck chemical by diethylpropion and apomorphine. In conclusion, the results showed that maternal exposure to FIX induced in female pups long-lasting decreased dopaminergic-mediated behaviors, suggesting altered development of the dopaminergic system. If this alteration also occurs in humans, female children of women who use FIX during pregnancy and lactation may express dopaminergic behavioral alterations and/or altered responsiveness to psychotropic medications later in life. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The jumps in population size due to the occurrence of an unfavorable physical environment (e.g.