Fitting of mineralization data to a sigmoidal Gompertz function revealed a lower rate of increase in mineralization in osteoarthritic tissue. Analysis of viscoelastic mechanical properties revealed increased compliance in osteoarthritic tissue.
Conclusions: These data suggest that significant changes occur at meniscal enthesis sites with the onset of OA. Mechanical and structural changes in meniscal entheses may contribute to meniscal extrusion, which has been shown to increase the progression of OA. (C) 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by alachlor Salubrinal chemical structure and dichlorvos,
two pesticides broadly used, were studied on RTG-2 fish cell line. As measure of cytotoxicity, neutral red assay was used to determine the cellular viability. Toxicity ranking based on IC50 values found that alachlor was more cytotoxic than dichlorvos. DNA damage has been evaluated on RTG-2 cultures by means of an in vitro Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor assay based on the ability of PicoGreen (R) fluorochrome to interact preferentially with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), and the results indicated that alachlor induced DNA strand breaks at concentrations
above 1.52 mu g/mL, equivalent to 1/50-EC50(48), whereas exposures to dichlorvos induced DNA damage only at the maximal concentrations tested 25 mu g/mL (1/10-EC50(48)). These results confirm the suitability of this method for the screening of genotoxic effects of this type of aquatic pollutants, and we suggest their use in hazard assessment for environmental risk procedures. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.”
“Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-) and Wnt-signalling play crucial roles in cartilage homeostasis. Our objective was to investigate whether activation of the BMP-pathway or stimulation of Wnt-signalling cascades effectively enhances cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation
and functional biomechanical parameters of chondrocyte-seeded tissue engineering (TE)-constructs.
Design: Articular chondrocytes were cultured in collagen-type-I/III-matrices over 6 weeks to create a biomechanical standard curve. Effects of stimulation with 100 ng/mL BMP-4/-7 heterodimer or 10 mM lithium chloride (LiC1) on buy HM781-36B ECM-deposition was quantified and characterized histologically. Biomechanical parameters were determined by the Very Low Rubber Hardness (VLRH) method and under confined compression stress relaxation.
Results: BMP-4/-7 treatment resulted in stronger collagen type-II staining and significantly enhanced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition (3.2-fold; *P < 0.01) correlating with improved hardness (similar to 1.7fold; *P = 0.001) reaching 83% of native cartilage values after 28 days, a value not reached before 9 weeks without stimulation. LiCl treatment enhanced VLRH slightly, but significantly (similar to 1.3-fold; *P = 0.