memory encoding was assessed with the 15 word task before sleep, and consolidation was assessed the next morning by a free recall.
Results: Sleep was more fragmented in patients with PTSD, with more awakenings in the first half of the night (p < 0.05). Plasma levels of GH during the night were significantly decreased in PTSD compared with HC (p < 0.05). Furthermore, GH secretion and awakenings were independent predictors for delayed recall, which was lower in PTSD compared to HC (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: These data show that PTSD is associated with increased awakenings during sleep and decreased nocturnal GH secretion. Furthermore, decreased GH secretion SP600125 molecular weight may be related to sleep fragmentation and both variables may exert a negative effect on sleep dependent memory consolidation. (C)2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Open bypass is the gold standard for treatment of mesenteric ischemia. With the refinement of endovascular therapy, visceral stenting is an attractive minimally invasive alternative, but the data ML323 concentration are limited and which vessel responds best to stenting has not been addressed. This study compares the outcomes of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery (CA) stenting.
Methods: All consecutive patients who underwent visceral stenting between January 2002 and May 2009 were
reviewed. Standard statistical analyses, including
Kaplan-Meier tests, were performed. Primary patency was defined as peak systolic velocities <350 cm/s for CAs and <450 cm/s for SMAs. Clinical patency was maintenance of either primary patency or the absence of recurrent symptoms. At arteriography, stenosis >= 70% was considered a loss of primary patency.
Results: One hundred twenty-one patients received 140 visceral stents in the SMA (n = 92; 65.7%), the CA (n = 40; 28.6%), and the inferior mesenteric artery (n = 8; 5.7%). Twenty-nine stents were placed in men (20.7%) and 111 stents were placed in women (79.3%) with a mean age of 72.9 years (range, 20.5-93.9). The combined SMA/CA stent mean follow-up was 12.8 months. Technical success was 100% for all. Overall 30-day morbidity and mortality rates were 14% and 0.8%, respectively. One-year primary patency Cell Cycle inhibitor was significantly higher for SMA than for CA stents: 55% versus 18%, respectively (P < .0001). Six-month clinical patency was 86% for the SMA and 67% for the CA (P < .005). Loss of CA primary patency was associated with stent diameter < 6 mm(P = .042) and age < 50 years (two patients; P = .038). These factors did not correlate with loss of primary patency for SMA. Overall freedom from bypass was 93% at 4 years.
Conclusions: Visceral stenting has an exceptionally high technical success rate with low procedural morbidity and mortality.