CONCLUSION: The endonasal approaches achieve a direct and wide ex

CONCLUSION: The endonasal approaches achieve a direct and wide exposure of the midline cranial base bilaterally. Lateral exposure, beyond the cranial nerves and carotid artery, are challenging. Transcranial approaches are limited by the narrow corridors provided by the cranial nerves, and they do not visualize the contralateral paramedian cranial base very well. Three-dimensional endoscopes augment the spatial orientation and may improve patient safety and the learning curve for endoscopic approaches to the midline cranial base.”
“Arenaviruses merit significant attention both as causative agents of endemic hemorrhagic

fevers and as model systems to study the immune response to acute and persistent viral infections. Development of highly sensitive quantitative screening methods to detect arenavirus is

critical for early diagnosis of patients, to screen the rodent population in endemic areas, and as a research tool to confirm effective tissue clearance during the development of anti-viral strategies. This study describes a novel sensitive and reproducible method to quantify prototypic new world arenavirus Tacaribe GKT137831 ic50 RNA in cell cultures and tissues using a real-time TaqMan PCR-based detection system. The method has a sensitivity of 100 RNA copies per 200 ng of total RNA, making it 2 logs more sensitive than the currently utilized TCID(50) method, and a linear range from 10(2) to 10(9) copies/reaction. The qRT-PCR method is high-throughput and screening can be achieved in <2 h allowing for diagnosis of infected patients before the onset of symptoms. This new method is a powerful tool to screen populations for infection and monitor the clearance achieved by available therapies, and serves as a model diagnostic tool

for other arenaviruses. AZD9291 cost (C) Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“OBJECTIVE: Stent-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms is performed by placing a microcatheter through a stent’s interstices or jailing the microcatheter between the stent and the artery. Both approaches impede manipulation of the microcatheter during coiling. We describe a modified jailing technique that improves catheter maneuverability and report the safety and efficacy of the method for the treatment of complex, wide-necked aneurysms.

METHODS: The semi-jailing technique involves the partial deployment of a retrievable stent, bridging part of the aneurysm neck while leaving space to maneuver the microcatheter Twenty-two complex, wide-necked aneurysms, including 3 ruptured and 5 dissecting, were treated Using the semi-jailing technique (15 women; mean age, 55.2 years).

RESULTS: The semi-jailing technique was successfully applied in all cases. Immediate posttreatment angiograms showed total occlusion of the aneurysm in 17 cases (77%), neck remnant in 3 cases (14%), and aneurysm dome filling in 2 cases (9%).

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