Comparative analysis of all samples indicated that the leaves gro

Comparative analysis of all samples indicated that the leaves grown in the sun had a greater content of biologically active principles

(caffeoyl derivatives, caffeine, theobromine and rutin) when compared with those grown in the shade. The processing that the leaves were subjected to after harvesting had a critical influence on bioactive compound composition. Processed leaves for “chimarrão” showed a decrease in the concentration of xanthines while the oxidised ones had SB431542 a lower concentration of phenolics when compared with green leaves (in natura), which promoted a decrease in the antioxidant potential of the oxidised leaves. However, if on the one hand the leaves subjected to blanching and drying (“chimarrão” type) contained more phenolic compounds and consequently a more intense antioxidant activity, on the other hand the oxidised leaves contained greater concentrations of carbohydrates, such as fructose and glucose, which may soften the

flavour of the beverage. Thus, the present results provide a guideline for obtaining leaves from Maté enriched in biologically active components, which could be applied+ to the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The authors wish to thank the Brazilian Ruxolitinib nmr funding agencies Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação Araucária, and PRONEX-Carboidratos for financial support. The authors declare no conflict of interest. “
“Vegetable oils are important compounds of human nourishment, providing energy, essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. Among these vitamins, provitamin

A and vitamin E are highlighted. Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that also present vitamin E activity, especially the α-tocopherol (De Greyt & Kellens, 2005) which are frequently found in serum (Krčmová et al., 2009). Tocotrienols possess powerful neuroprotective, anti-cancer and cholesterol lowering properties that are often not exhibited by tocopherols (Sen, Khanna, & Roy, 2005). During deodorisation, it was observed that tocopherol losses exceeded 30%, two thirds of which resulted from their distillation (Gogolewsky, Nogala-Kalucka, & Szeliga, 2000). Both analytes, tocopherols and tocotrienols, present maximum UV absorption between 280 and 300 nm with minimum absorption between 250 and 260 nm. Tocopherols Methocarbamol and tocotrienols have also intense native fluorescence when excited at 210 or 290–292 nm. Excitation of chroman ring at these wavelengths produces maximal emission at 320 or slightly higher wavelengths. Fluorescence detection provides sensitivity, specificity, and cleaner chromatograms compared to UV detection. Fluorescence detection is essential to the successful assay of vitamin E in complex food matrices. UV detection can be used for concentrated supplements or fortification premixes (Eitenmiller & Landen, 1999, Chapter 3).

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