coli strains, plasmids and phages Relevant Genotype Reference BL21-AI F- ompT hsdSB(rB-, mB-) gal dcm (DE3), arabinose inducible T7 RNA polymerase Invitrogen,
Paisley, U.K. MC1061 F- Δ(ara-leu)7697 Δ(codB-lacI)3 galK16 λ- mcrA0 rpsL150(strR) mcrB1  DM1187 F- dam-13::Tn9(CmR) dcm- mcrB hsdR-M + gal1 ara- lac- thr- leu- tsxR  TOP10 F- mcrA Φ80lacZΔM15 recA + Invitrogen, Paisley, U.K. pCR ® -Blunt lacZ α, KanR, ccdB Invitrogen, Paisley, U.K. pET30c Expression vector with T7 promoter, KanR, TetR, Novagen, Notts, UK LY2606368 manufacturer Φ24 B Stx2-phage, ΔstxA 2::aph3  All cultures, unless otherwise stated, were propagated from an overnight (~16 h) starter culture (0.5% v/v inoculum) in Luria Bertani (LB) broth (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) containing 0.01 M CaCl2, incubated Selleckchem I-BET151 at 37°C with shaking at 200 r.p.m. Lysogen
cultures were grown in the presence of kanamycin (Kan, 50 μg ml-1). Induction of protein expression in BL21-AI cells took place in BHI broth with 0.2% arabinose and 1 mM IPTG. Induction of phage lysogens Cultures of MC1061(Φ24B) cells were incubated with norfloxacin (1 μg mL-1) for 1 h at 37°C with shaking at 200 r.p.m. Cultures were then diluted 1:10 in fresh LB and the bacteria allowed to recover from the growth inhibitory effects of the antibiotic for 1 h at 37°C (the recovery period), with shaking at 200 r.p.m. Antisera production for use in CMAT A 2 L culture of MC1061(Φ24B) was propagated for 6 hours. The cells were pelleted and resuspended in 1 ml of retained supernatant plus 1 ml of LB broth. Protease inhibitors (20 μL) (Roche Complete Mini EDTA Free protease inhibitor cocktail tablets, Bath, U.K.) and 10 μL of lysis buffer (7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 2% CHAPS, 1% DTT, Roche Complete Mini EDTA-free protease inhibitor cocktail tablets) were added to each. The samples were sonicated at 15-18 μ for 6 × 10 s bursts. Absolute methanol (1.5 ml) was added, and the samples were
incubated at -20°C for 60 min. Protein was harvested by centrifugation at 16,000 g for 5 min, and the resultant protein pellets were C59 supplier air-dried and suspended in 0.5 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The samples were pooled; the protein content was measured by Bradford Assay  and adjusted to 1 mg ml-1. A total of 4 mg of the lysogen protein was sent to Eurogentec (Seraing, Belgium) for antisera production in rabbits, using the Ribi adjuvant system. Two rabbits were immunised with the protein sample on days 0, 14, 28 and 56 of the program. Bleeds were carried out on days 0 (pre-immune sera), 38, 66 and 87 (final bleed). Pre-immune sera from the two rabbits used were received and MK0683 supplier tested for cross-reactivity by western blot analysis. CMAT was carried out as per instructions from the license holder, Oragenics Inc., FL., U.S.A. [17, 47], with the exception that BL21-AI was used as the expression strain for the phage library. The recommended expression host, BL21[DE3], is an E.