Biochemical and genetic studies implicated S6Ks in the regulation

Biochemical and genetic studies implicated S6Ks in the regulation of cell size, growth, and energy metabolism. Deregulation of S6K signaling has been linked to various human pathologies, making them excellent targets for drug discovery. The aim of this study was to

produce monoclonal antibodies directed at the N-terminal regulatory region of S6K2, which shows very low homology to S6K1 or other members of the AGC family. To achieve this goal, two S6K2 fragments covering 1-64aa and 14-64aa N-terminal sequences were expressed in bacteria as GST/6His fusion proteins. Affinity purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens CGP 41251 for immunization, hybridoma screening, and analysis of generated clones. We produced a panel of S6K2-specific antibodies, which recognized recombinant S6K2 proteins in ELISA and Western VX-809 blot analysis. Further analysis of selected clones revealed that three clones, termed B1, B2, and B4, specifically recognized not only recombinant, but also endogenous S6K2 in Western blot analysis of HEK293 cell lysates. Specificity of B2 clone has been confirmed in additional commonly used immunoassays, including immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry. These properties make B2 MAb particularly valuable for elucidating signal transduction pathways involving

S6K2 signaling under physiological conditions and in human pathologies.”
“OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic features, disease manifestations and therapy in patients with

giant cell arteritis from referral centers in Brazil.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 45 giant cell arteritis Selleckchem P5091 patients from three university hospitals in Brazil. Diagnoses were based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for giant cell arteritis or temporal artery biopsy findings.

RESULTS: Most patients were Caucasian, and females were slightly more predominant. The frequencies of disease manifestations were as follows: temporal headache in 82.2%, neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations in 68.9%, jaw claudication in 48.9%, systemic symptoms in 44.4%, polymyalgia rheumatica in 35.6% and extra-cranial vessel involvement in 17.8% of cases. Aortic aneurysms were observed in 6.6% of patients. A comparison between patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis and those without temporal artery biopsies did not yield significant differences in disease manifestations. All patients were treated with oral prednisone, and intravenous methylprednisolone was administered to nearly half of the patients. Methotrexate was the most commonly used immunosuppressive agent, and low-dose aspirin was prescribed to the majority of patients. Relapses occurred in 28.9% of patients, and aspirin had a protective effect against relapses. Females had higher prevalences of polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic manifestations and jaw claudication, while permanent visual loss was more prevalent in men.

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