A weight decrease in the hafnium oxide film was observed at tempe

A weight decrease in the hafnium oxide film was observed at temperatures higher than ca. 600K, which corresponds to the sublimation point of hafnium tetrachloride. The etching by-product is considered to be hafnium tetrachloride. The etching technique Cell Cycle inhibitor developed in this study is expected to be applicable to various processes, such as the cleaning of a hafnium oxide film deposition reactor. (C) 2009 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Rapidly progressive destructive hip arthropathy

due to ochronosis is a rare entity about which most of the average orthopaedic surgeons are unaware of. In a developing country like India, such rapidly progressive hip destruction is seen in the far more commonly in tuberculosis of the hip. We present one such case which was misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis in an attempt to increase the awareness of ochronosis amongst the orthopaedic surgeons. We also briefly review the literature and discuss the management principles in such a rare diagnosis.”
“The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bed net use and elucidate the effect of daytime bed net use on preventing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) among

children in Vietnam. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey and a matched case-control study in Khanh Hoa Province where not only some pre-schoolchildren but also some school children, who take a nap during lunch break prior to returning to school, used bed nets during the day. Among 36,901 children 2-10 years of age, most used untreated bed nets during the night (98.3%) compared with 8.4% during BTSA1 solubility dmso the day. The results of the case-control study, which defined 151 cases CHIR98014 clinical trial who were hospitalized

with DHF in the provincial hospitals and 604 age-matched neighborhood controls, did not support our hypothesis that children using untreated bed nets during the day are less likely to be hospitalized with DHF (adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% confidence interval = 0.23-1.39).”
“A large variety of antimicrobial peptides have been shown to act, at least in vitro, by potation of the lipid membrane. The nanometre size of these pores, however, complicates their structural characterization by experimental techniques. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations, to study the interaction of a specific class of antimicrobial peptides, melittin, with a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in atomic detail. We show that transmembrane pores spontaneously form above a critical peptide to lipid ratio. The lipid molecules bend inwards to form a toroidally shaped pore but with only one or two peptides lining the pore. This is in strong contrast to the traditional models of toroidal pores in which the peptides are assumed to adopt a transmembrane orientation. We find that peptide aggregation, either prior or after binding to the membrane surface. is a prerequisite to pore formation. The presence of a stable helical secondary structure of the peptide, however is not.

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