Table III. Selected placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials of post-traumatic stress disorder treatment. The available literature suggests that a trial period of about 8 to 12 weeks should be undertaken to assess efficacy.8,111 Long-term studies suggest that maintenance treatment should be continued in responders for at least a year.102,112 Limited data exists on a number of other medication classes in PTSD. For example, the anticonvulsants lamotrigine and topiramate have been found to be effective as either monotherapy113,114 or augmentation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical strategy.115 Once again, however, given the relative paucity of data, such agents are not considered a first-line option in the pharmacotherapy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of PTSD. Limited work has been undertaken in patients not responding to initial SSRI/SNRI treatment, or in special populations such as children and adolescents.41,116 In treatment-refractory patients, switching to a different SSRI/SNRI can be considered, but has not been well studied. Augmentation with an atypical antipsychotic (eg. risperidone or olanzapine) has been found efficacious
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in some studies.117-119 Other considerations include the addition of an anticonvulsant agent, for example topiramate.115 Treatment guidelines emphasize the need for ongoing assessment of the risk:benefit ratio of such strategies, for example, monitoring metabolic effects.8,106 Animal studies of stress have given impetus to the question of whether PTSD can be prevented by early pharmacotherapy. Early proof-of-principle studies suggested that the β-blocker, propanolol, may be efficacious in this Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical context.120,121 The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been well-studied in both animal and human work on stress, and the administration of IV hydrocortisone in the hospital setting has been suggested useful in PTSD prophylaxis.122,123,3 However, subsequent work with propanolol and other agents has not always been supportive of the early work,124,125 and further research in this area remains necessary. Laboratory research also led to the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hypothesis that D-cycloserine, a partial agonist at NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) glutamate receptors,126 may be useful
in enhancing CBT in PTSD. Early proof-of-principle trials have shown promise.127,128 This is a particularly exciting development, as it represents that, for perhaps the first time, a translational approach in anxiety disorders has led to an efficacious Linifanib (ABT-869) new treatment. Various other molecular targets for CBT augmentation have been suggested,12 but further work is needed to confirm the effectiveness of such approaches in the clinical context. LY294002 purchase Social anxiety disorder The pharmacotherapy of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) was given initial impetus by the finding that MAOIs are effective, but TCAs are not. As in the case of PD and OCD, this suggested that particular agents might be efficacious for particular anxiety disorders.