[28] reported that nanowires have a phase transformation after io

[28] reported that nanowires have a phase transformation after ion implantation. The Ga-implanted GaN nanowires transform from hexagonal phase to cubic phase. They ascribed this effect to two main reasons: one is that the accumulation of Ga ions have reduced the surface energy and stabilized the cubic phase, check details and the other possible reason is the short-range order fluctuations caused by dynamic annealing during the implantation process. The effect

of the properties caused by ion implantation When the ions are implanted into the nanomaterials, the ions will collide with the target atoms and charges. As noted previously, the collision processes include three different modes: nuclear collision, electron collision, and charge exchange. Incident ions lose the energy during every collision process and may be stopped within the materials as Nutlin-3a ic50 impurity atoms. It is common that most of

these incident ions stay at the interstitial sites, and these interstitial impurities may migrate to substitutional positions after annealing. This substitutional doping enables the nanomaterials to get more admirable properties. Electrical properties After ion implantation and annealing, the carrier concentration of nanomaterials may increase dramatically and even the conductive type of nanomaterials PCI-32765 in vivo may be converted by this fierce process. Without annealing, the implanted nanomaterials revealed worse conductivity, attributing to the damaged crystal lattice. In order to recover the crystal lattice, subsequent annealing is essential. On the other hand, annealing also provides the condition to activate impurity atoms. Kanungo et al. [29] utilized ion implantation to achieve the n- and p-doping

of silicon nanowires. Figure 5a,b,c shows the I-V curves of B-implanted Si nanowires, P-implanted Si nanowires, and As-implanted Si nanowires, respectively [29]. In all the I-V curves of the implanted nanowires in Figure 5, compared with those of the unimplanted nanowires, the conductivity of the implanted nanowires were observably enhanced. Comparing all the curves of Figure 5, the B-implanted Si nanowires have the highest conductivity. Boron is a light element which can easily substitute for the silicon ions at 850°C, and high-crystalline quality B-doped Si nanowires were acquired AMP deaminase after subsequent annealing. P-implanted Si nanowires and As-implanted nanowires revealed lower conductivity; this must be attributed to the enhanced surface depletion [30]. The interaction of defects enhanced the diffusivity of the P atoms [31]. After annealing, most of the P atoms diffused out of the Si nanowires. These atoms staying on the surface of the nanowires can enhance the surface depletion. Stichtenoth et al. [17] fabricated p-type doped GaAs nanowires by zinc ion implantation. After Zn ion implantation, the sample was annealed at 800°C for 30 min, and then the conductivity of the GaAs nanowire increased in several orders of magnitude (Figure 6). Zeiner et al.

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