1 to 0.2%. Antibiotics were used at the following concentrations (in mg/L) sodium VX-680 mw ampicillin, 100; chloramphenicol, 30; kanamycin sulfate and rifampicin, 200. L-Arabinose and D-fucose were used at concentrations of 0.01%. Isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) was used at final concentration of 1 mM. Recombinant DNA techniques and construction of plasmids Restriction enzymes, T4 DNA ligase and Taq DNA polymerase were from Invitrogen or New England Biolabs unless indicated otherwise. All enzymatic reactions were carried out according to the manufacturer’s specifications. Qiagen products were used to isolate plasmids, purify
DNA fragments from agarose gels and purify PCR products. Plasmids were introduced into E. coli strains by CaCl2-mediated transformation. C. TGF-beta Smad signaling acetobutylicium ATCC824 genomic DNA was extracted using the GNOME DNA kit (Bio 101). DNA sequencing and the synthesis of oligonucleotides were done at the University of Illinois Keck Genomics Center. The C. acetobutylicium fabF homologues were amplified from genomic DNA using the primers fabF1, fabF2 and fabF3 (Additional file 1). The PCR products were cloned into vector pCR2.1TOPO to give plasmids pHW40 (fabF1), pHW41 (fabF2) and pHW42 (fabF3). Plasmids pHW40 and pHW42 were then digested with EcoRI, the appropriate fragments were isolated and these were ligated into pHSG576  digested with the same enzyme to give plasmids pHW33 and pHW35, Erismodegib respectively. The orientation
of the C. acetobutylicium ORFs in these plasmids were such that the genes would be transcribed
by the vector lac promoter. The HindIII-XhoI fragment of pHW41 was ligated into vector pSU20  digested with the same enzymes to give pHW43 which was then digested with HindIII plus SalI and the fabF2-containing fragment was inserted into the same sites of vector pHSG576 to give pHW34. Plasmids pHW16, pHW31 and pHW32 were constructed as follows. The upstream primers were primers12, 34 and 56 (Additional file 1) and the downstream primer was the M13 (-) forward primer. Plasmids pHW33, pHW34 and ADP ribosylation factor pHW35 were used as templates for PCR amplification. The products were cloned into vector pCR2.1 TOPO to yield pHW16, pHW31 and pHW32, respectively. The BspHI-PstI fragments of pHW16 and pHW32 were then ligated into NcoI and PstI sites of pBAD24  to give plasmids pHW36 and pHW38, respectively. Likewise, the BspHI-HindIII fragment of pHW31 was inserted into the NcoI and HindIII sites of pBAD24 to yield pHW37. The fabZ homologue was amplified by PCR using C. acetobutylicium genomic DNA as template with primers Zprimer1 and Zprimer2 (Additional file 1). The PCR product was inserted into pCR2.1 TOPO vector to give pHW15. The BspLU11I-HindIII fragment of pHW15 was inserted into the sites of pBAD24 digested with NcoI and HindIII to give pHW22. The BspHI-EcoRI fragments of pHW15 and pHW16 was inserted into the NcoI and EcoRI sites of pET28b to give pHW39 and pHW28, respectively.